INT100172

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 6
Total Number 9
Disease Relevance 5.35
Pain Relevance 0.51

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Utrn) nucleus (Utrn) cytoplasm (Utrn)
Anatomy Link Frequency
cardiac muscle 2
cardiomyocytes 1
muscle 1
skeletal muscle 1
neuromuscular junction 1
Utrn (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
sodium channel 6 96.12 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 190 92.24 High High
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase 3 78.72 Quite High
metalloproteinase 2 77.28 Quite High
Kinase C 8 74.96 Quite High
Neurotransmitter 44 66.80 Quite High
Inflammation 32 59.92 Quite High
palliative 7 36.96 Quite Low
Calcium channel 8 24.12 Low Low
imagery 26 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Injury 2 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 14 96.40 Very High Very High Very High
Cardiomyopathy 252 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
Muscular Dystrophy 679 93.12 High High
Targeted Disruption 54 92.28 High High
Fibrosis 228 92.24 High High
Stress 34 86.72 High High
Disease 26 79.12 Quite High
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 80 72.76 Quite High
Myocardial Infarction 24 63.60 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
An alternative to the pharmacological approach is to compensate for dystrophin loss by the upregulation of another cytoskeletal protein, utrophin.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of utrophin
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal J. Physiol. Paris Section Abstract Doc Link 11755782 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.04
It was also noted that utrophin was upregulated in the hearts of the female mdx carrier mice and this may compensate for the reduced dystrophin in the cardiomyocytes [58].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of utrophin in cardiomyocytes
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0
Utrophin is upregulated in the mdx mouse and its expression is located around the sarcolemma suggesting that it may partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin and perhaps to some extent explains the milder phenotype of the mdx mouse.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Utrophin
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.06
The relatively mild phenotype and near normal life span of the mdx mouse has prompted the generation of double mutants such as the mdx/utrophin and the mdx/MyoD mice, both of which have a far more severe skeletal and cardiac muscle phenotype to model the development of cardiomyopathy.
Positive_regulation (generation) of utrophin in cardiac muscle associated with cardiomyopathy
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.43 Pain Relevance 0
The relatively mild phenotype and near normal life span of the mdx mouse has prompted the generation of double mutants such as the mdx/utrophin and the mdx/MyoD mice, both of which have a far more severe skeletal and cardiac muscle phenotype to model the development of cardiomyopathy.
Positive_regulation (/) of utrophin in cardiac muscle associated with cardiomyopathy
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.42 Pain Relevance 0
However, since increased NO production results in enhanced utrophin expression [80] and treatment of mdx mice with a nNOS substrate, l-arginine, also increases utrophin levels and its membrane localization [81], clinical manipulation of nNOS levels in the muscle is considered a potential starting point for therapeutic intervention [82].
Positive_regulation (increases) of utrophin in muscle
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.14
Utrophin, however, accumulates at the postsynaptic side of the neuromuscular junction during early postnatal development as part of a protein complex, the utrophin glycoprotein complex (UGC; Fig. 1b), which includes the syntrophins, dystrobrevins, sarcoglycans, sarcospan, and dystroglycan [43].
Positive_regulation (accumulates) of Utrophin in neuromuscular junction
7) Confidence 0.33 Published 2009 Journal Mol Neurobiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2840664 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
These findings support the notion that one of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action is through the stimulation of endogenous utrophin levels in dystrophic skeletal muscle fibers [30].
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of utrophin in skeletal muscle
8) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2888587 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
L- arginine reduces sarcolemmal injury by inducing up-regulation of utrophin and ?
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of utrophin associated with injury
9) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2888587 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.16

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