INT10453

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 3
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 65
Total Number 69
Disease Relevance 10.75
Pain Relevance 31.90

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

mitochondrion (Gad1) lyase activity (Gad1) intracellular (Gad1)
cytoplasm (Gad1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 9
neurons 6
globus pallidus 4
prefrontal 4
PVN 2
Gad1 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 203 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 134 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 112 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 60 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 41 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 21 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 96 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 35 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 42 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 98 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 1 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 1 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 2 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 100 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 187 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Dystonia 21 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 34 97.86 Very High Very High Very High
Bordatella Infection 6 93.52 High High
Movement Disorders 5 93.12 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase activity, increased glucose utilization, and decreased muscimol binding within the cerebellar nuclei of the dystonic rat suggests that Purkinje cell firing rates are increased in these animals.
Positive_regulation (Increased) of glutamic acid decarboxylase in Purkinje cell associated with dystonia
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2002 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 12172657 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.14
Following repeated administration of the D-2 antagonists, eticlopride and haloperidol, there was an increase in enkephalin and GAD67 mRNA levels and parallel decrease in that of substance P.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 mRNA associated with antagonist, enkephalin and substance p
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1994 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 7535410 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.07
The increased GABA release and the apparent adaptive increase in GAD67 mRNA levels by the strongest stimulation may be due to an endogenous inhibitory neuroprotective response to an excitotoxic influence.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 associated with gaba
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1997 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9332739 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
Drug-naive lesioned rats showed an increase in GAD67 mRNA in enkephalin (-) and (+) neurons, an increase in enkephalin and a decrease in dynorphin mRNAs.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 in neurons associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 14622157 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.07
L-DOPA produced a high and similar increase in GAD67 mRNA in enkephalin (-) and (+) neurons.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 in neurons associated with enkephalin
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 14622157 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.14
Priming with either SKF38393 or quinpirole further increased GAD67 mRNA in enkephalin (-) and (+) neurons, however, while SKF38393 produced a high and unbalanced activation toward enkephalin (-) neurons, after quinpirole the increase was of low intensity and similar in the two pathways.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 in neurons associated with enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 14622157 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.15
Similarly, GAD67 mRNA was increased in the striatum and globus pallidus by long-term L-dopa administration but not by long-term SCH 58261 + L-dopa administration.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 mRNA in globus pallidus
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 2003 Journal Neurology Section Abstract Doc Link 14663008 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.56
Thalamic lesions prevented most of the dopamine denervation-induced changes (i.e. the increases in mRNA levels of enkephalin and GAD67 in the striatum, of GAD67 in the globus pallidus and entopeduncular nucleus, and of cytochrome oxidase subunit-I in the subthalamic nucleus), but did not affect the downregulation of striatal substance P and upregulation of GAD67 in the substantia nigra pars reticulata.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of GAD67 in substantia nigra pars reticulata associated with dopamine, substantia nigra, enkephalin and substance p
8) Confidence 0.69 Published 2004 Journal J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 14748558 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.39
Therefore, NMDA receptors are unlikely to contribute to the dopamine lesion-induced GAD67 mRNA up-regulation in striatal projection neurons.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of GAD67 in projection neurons associated with dopamine, nmda receptor and projection neuron
9) Confidence 0.69 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9037536 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.60
As reported previously, the unilateral dopaminergic lesion resulted in marked increases in GAD67 mRNA levels in the ipsilateral striatum.
Positive_regulation (increases) of GAD67 in striatum
10) Confidence 0.69 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9037536 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
All sensitizing pretreatments increased GAD67 mRNA in the CeA.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 in CeA associated with amygdala
11) Confidence 0.69 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 18312583 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.68
Regional analysis of labeling showed that the increased GAD67, preproenkephalin or dopamine D2 receptor mRNA levels occurred in all striatal sectors examined.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 associated with dopamine
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.44
In the striatum of adults, both doses of 6-hydroxydopamine induced an increase in GAD67 and preproenkephalin mRNA levels compared to controls.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 in striatum
13) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.39
Emulsion radioautographs confirmed the increased GAD67, preproenkephalin and dopamine D2 receptor mRNA labeling at cellular level.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 associated with dopamine
14) Confidence 0.69 Published 1993 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7902185 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.47
In 15-day-old rats, neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine or haloperidol treatment resulted in increased preproenkephalin but unchanged GAD67 mRNA levels compared to controls.
Neg (unchanged) Positive_regulation (increased) of GAD67 mRNA
15) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8004444 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.37
In adult rats injected as neonates with 6-hydroxydopamine or treated with the D1/D2 dopamine receptors antagonist, haloperidol, an increase in preproenkephalin and GAD67 mRNA levels was measured in the striatum.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 mRNA in striatum associated with antagonist and dopamine receptor
16) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8004444 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.41
In these 15-day-old rats, however, sulpiride produced an increase in GAD67 but not preproenkephalin mRNA levels.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67
17) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8004444 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.35
In contrast, increase of GAD67 mRNA in the GP was associated to both behavioral responses (SCT and AIMs), suggesting that neuroadaptive changes in this area were unrelated to the difference in dyskinetic potential of drugs.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 mRNA associated with dyskinesias
18) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 18435422 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.41
A maximum two-fold increase of GAD67 mRNA was found on the day following the capsaicin injection and reached control values within 3 weeks.
Positive_regulation (increase) of GAD67 associated with qutenza
19) Confidence 0.68 Published 1998 Journal Perspect Dev Neurobiol Section Abstract Doc Link 9777631 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.74
Moreover, since this upregulation of GAD67 mRNA coincides with the sprouting of unaffected afferent fibers and of 5HT axons, one can hypothesize that GAD67 participates in the structural plasticity occurring in reaction to the capsaicin-induced partial deafferentation.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of GAD67 associated with qutenza, 5ht and deafferentation
20) Confidence 0.68 Published 1998 Journal Perspect Dev Neurobiol Section Abstract Doc Link 9777631 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.73

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