INT106056

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Context Info
Confidence 0.76
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 77
Total Number 80
Disease Relevance 35.35
Pain Relevance 8.16

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

endoplasmic reticulum (Hcrt) cytoplasm (Hcrt)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 14
brain 7
hypothalamus 6
lateral 5
pons 3
Hcrt (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
gABA 351 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 210 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 8 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 5 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 15 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 18 98.98 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 176 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 95 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
medulla 132 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 10 97.50 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Sleep Disorders 4159 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Idiopathic Hypersomnolence 77 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 2274 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Death 453 98.70 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 18 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 186 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Lumbar Puncture Related Headaches 3 98.18 Very High Very High Very High
Reprotox - General 1 51 97.92 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 51 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
Glioblastoma 45 95.20 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Briefly, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing either HCRT-1 or HCRT-2 receptors were exposed to HCRT2-SAP.
Gene_expression (expressing) of HCRT in ovary
1) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.07
Briefly, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing either HCRT-1 or HCRT-2 receptors were exposed to HCRT2-SAP.
Gene_expression (expressing) of HCRT-1 in ovary
2) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.07
The sleep disorder narcolepsy is caused by a vast reduction in neurons producing the hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptides.
Gene_expression (producing) of orexin in neurons associated with neuropeptide and sleep disorders
3) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.05
As noted above, individuals with this condition have marked neuronal loss (85% to 95%) in the hypothalamic regions responsible for producing orexin/hypocretin, including the dorsal and lateral hypothalamus, as well as in the locus coeruleus, thalamus, and the cerebral cortex [86,113].
Gene_expression (producing) of hypocretin in hypothalamus associated with locus ceruleus, thalamus and cerebral cortex
4) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2701283 Disease Relevance 1.48 Pain Relevance 0.20
Orexin-A is mostly found in lactotrophs and a small subpopulation of somatotrophs, gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs and orexin-B only in corticotrophs (350).
Gene_expression (found) of Orexin-A in thyrotrophs
5) Confidence 0.75 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neuroendocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2229370 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.03
We performed gene expression profiling in the hypothalamus to identify novel genes dysregulated in narcolepsy, as these may be the target of autoimmune attack or modulate hypocretin gene expression.


Gene_expression (expression) of hypocretin in hypothalamus associated with sleep disorders
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.04
A combination of QRT-PCR confirmation in human hypothalamus and neuroanatomical screening in the mouse brain identified a single factor, IGFBP3 that is coexpressed with HCRT in both humans and mice and present in only a few other brain areas.
Gene_expression (coexpressed) of HCRT in brain
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
IGFBP3 inhibits hypocretin production in vivo
Gene_expression (production) of hypocretin
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0
Furthermore, the concentrations of HCRT1 and HCRT2 in the cortex and pons, two areas with HCRT projections, are dramatically decreased [7].
Gene_expression (concentrations) of HCRT1 in cortex
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.03
Furthermore, the concentrations of HCRT1 and HCRT2 in the cortex and pons, two areas with HCRT projections, are dramatically decreased [7].
Gene_expression (concentrations) of HCRT2 in cortex
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.03
To investigate coexpression of HCRT and Igfbp3, we performed Igfbp3 ISH followed by HCRT immunostaining.
Spec (investigate) Gene_expression (coexpression) of HCRT
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.03
Hypocretin-1 is a neuropeptide produced by 50,000–70,000 hypothalamic neurons in the human brain.
Gene_expression (produced) of Hypocretin-1 in brain associated with neuropeptide
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2617764 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.05
The first experiment utilized hypocretin knock-out (HCRT-ko) mice with the expectation that deletion of both HCRT and its target neurons would exacerbate narcoleptic symptoms.
Gene_expression (deletion) of HCRT in neurons associated with targeted disruption
13) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.08
Mice (20–35 g) homozygous with respect to the deletion of the hypocretin gene on both alleles (HCRT-ko n?
Gene_expression (deletion) of hypocretin
14) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
The HCRT-2 receptor is widely present on the vlPAG neurons, including the eGFP/GABA neurons and all of these neurons were likely lesioned by the neurotoxin, but only REM sleep increased.
Gene_expression (lesioned) of HCRT in neurons associated with gaba
15) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.16
Indeed, even in mice lacking both HCRT and the norepinephrine synthesizing enzyme, dopamine beta hydroxylase, i.e., a double knockout, there is no additive effect [38].
Gene_expression (lacking) of HCRT associated with targeted disruption and dopamine
16) Confidence 0.66 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2709920 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.26
Age-related decline in hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 messenger RNA levels in the mouse brain.
Gene_expression (levels) of hypocretin in brain associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.65 Published 2002 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 12399012 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.35
The levels of dopamine and its major metabolites in the nucleus accumbens were markedly increased by the microinjection of orexin A and orexin B into the VTA.
Gene_expression (microinjection) of orexin A in nucleus accumbens associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens and dopamine
18) Confidence 0.65 Published 2006 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 16407535 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.93
A lumbar puncture was performed in 35 patients (19 NC, 7 NWC, 9 HI) in order to measure the CSF hypocretin-1/orexin A levels.
Gene_expression (/) of orexin A in puncture associated with idiopathic hypersomnolence, sleep disorders and lumbar puncture related headaches
19) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2954157 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0
A similar pattern was reported in orexin/hypocretin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus [32, 63].
Gene_expression (neurons) of hypocretin in hypothalamus
20) Confidence 0.65 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2701283 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.44

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