INT106548

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Context Info
Confidence 0.80
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 14
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 5.05
Pain Relevance 4.33

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Adcyap1) extracellular space (Adcyap1) extracellular region (Adcyap1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adrenal gland 1
gonads 1
dorsal horn 1
vasculature 1
neurons 1
Adcyap1 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 141 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 45 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
primary afferent fibers 4 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 169 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 5 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 89 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
pruritus 59 97.12 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 5 97.04 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn neuron 7 95.88 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 7 94.64 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nociception 43 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Fatigue 77 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 137 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
Pruritus 78 97.12 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple Sclerosis 196 94.76 High High
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis 14 94.56 High High
Autoimmune Disease 105 93.84 High High
Psoriasis 60 88.32 High High
Hypoxia 21 86.60 High High
Injury 21 64.24 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In turn, NO would stimulate the release of PACAP from inhibitory neurones.
Localization (release) of PACAP
1) Confidence 0.80 Published 2004 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 14975700 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
As a corollary, PACAP, which may be released from primary afferent fibers potentiates nociceptive transmission to the dorsal horn by interacting primarily with NMDA receptors.
Localization (released) of PACAP in dorsal horn associated with nociception, nmda receptor, primary afferent fibers and dorsal horn
2) Confidence 0.80 Published 2002 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 12435456 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.54
PACAP-mediated increases in cytosolic Ca2+ have been observed previously in cultured rat SCN neurons and have been found due to the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores [16,34].
Localization (release) of PACAP in neurons
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2006 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1388226 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.10
Thus PACAP can increase both sEPSC frequency and amplitude, suggesting that PACAP can modulate both pre-synaptic release as well as post-synaptic sensitivity to glutamate.


Localization (increase) of PACAP associated with glutamate
4) Confidence 0.55 Published 2006 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1388226 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.11
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) including autonomic (ANS) nervous systems and peripheral tissues including heart, lung, pancreas, adrenal gland, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract as well as immune cells and lymphatic system.5,103 PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators.
Localization (distributed) of PACAP in lung associated with nociception, neurotransmitter, hypoxia and central nervous system
5) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.23
As PACAP and VIP and their receptors are located throughout the CNS parenchyma and vasculature they not only serve a role in immunomodulation they could also serve as antigens which might be subject to autoimmunity.
Localization (located) of PACAP in vasculature associated with autoimmune disease and central nervous system
6) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.42
Different from SNAP, 8-Br-cGMP and 8-Br-cAMP did not affect the dopamine release evoked by PACAP (Figure 3B), demonstrating that the attenuation of PACAP-enhanced dopamine release by SNAP was independent of the NO/cGMP/cGK signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
Localization (release) of PACAP associated with dopamine
7) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2762960 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Conversely, neither 8-Br-cGMP nor 8-Br-cAMP itself affected the basal release (data not shown) or PACAP-enhanced dopamine release (Figure 3B).
Localization (release) of PACAP associated with dopamine
8) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2762960 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
Cellular dopamine content was around 7.2 ± 0.8 ng/well; and basal and PACAP-evoked release of dopamine into the culture media were 1.5-2 and 15-20% of cellular dopamine, respectively.


Localization (release) of PACAP associated with dopamine
9) Confidence 0.19 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2762960 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
Retino-hypothalamic cells release glutamate and PACAP, which activate Per gene expression in the target VL cells [31], which then relay the light signal to the DM cells [17].
Localization (release) of PACAP associated with glutamate
10) Confidence 0.18 Published 2007 Journal PLoS Computational Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1851983 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) including autonomic (ANS) nervous systems and peripheral tissues including heart, lung, pancreas, adrenal gland, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract as well as immune cells and lymphatic system.5,103 PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators.
Localization (distributed) of PACAP in pancreas associated with nociception, neurotransmitter, hypoxia and central nervous system
11) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.23
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) including autonomic (ANS) nervous systems and peripheral tissues including heart, lung, pancreas, adrenal gland, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract as well as immune cells and lymphatic system.5,103 PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators.
Localization (distributed) of PACAP in adrenal gland associated with nociception, neurotransmitter, hypoxia and central nervous system
12) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.23
As PACAP and VIP and their receptors are located throughout the CNS parenchyma and vasculature they not only serve a role in immunomodulation they could also serve as antigens which might be subject to autoimmunity.
Localization (located) of PACAP in parenchyma associated with autoimmune disease and central nervous system
13) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.42
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) including autonomic (ANS) nervous systems and peripheral tissues including heart, lung, pancreas, adrenal gland, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract as well as immune cells and lymphatic system.5,103 PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators.
Localization (distributed) of PACAP in gonads associated with nociception, neurotransmitter, hypoxia and central nervous system
14) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.23
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) including autonomic (ANS) nervous systems and peripheral tissues including heart, lung, pancreas, adrenal gland, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract as well as immune cells and lymphatic system.5,103 PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators.
Localization (distributed) of PACAP in heart associated with nociception, neurotransmitter, hypoxia and central nervous system
15) Confidence 0.15 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0.23
neurotrophin-4, low-affinity receptor for NGF, PACAP receptor expression, as
Localization (as) of PACAP
16) Confidence 0.07 Published 2007 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2221678 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.78

General Comments

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