INT107291

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 58
Total Number 74
Disease Relevance 44.60
Pain Relevance 9.68

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 16
stomach 6
tail 2
brain 2
arcuate nucleus 2
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 89 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 44 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Intracerebroventricular 12 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 4 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 200 98.78 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 94 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 37 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 351 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 499 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 71 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 739 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 165 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 711 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 329 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 300 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 27 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 22 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Ulcers 91 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Birth Weight 15 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Failure 60 99.48 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Sleep deprivation also leads to changes in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to reduced levels of leptin and to increased levels of ghrelin in the general circulation [13].
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin in sympathetic nervous system associated with sleep disorders
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Endocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2842885 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0
It has recently been shown that rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia by mediating an increase in the circulating ghrelin concentration.
Positive_regulation (increase) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
This evidence supports the notion that decreasing incidence of H pylori infection may lead to increased levels of plasma ghrelin and that this hormone appears to be a factor in increasing obesity which elevates the risk of GORD which is positively associated with Barrett's esophagus and increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin in plasma associated with adenocarcinoma, obesity, ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease and infection
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal J Transl Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1479838 Disease Relevance 1.55 Pain Relevance 0
Total but not acylghrelin concentrations are elevated in endstage renal failure [595] and normalize following kidney transplantation.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin in kidney associated with renal failure
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 2.00 Pain Relevance 0.37
Patients with UC showed a significant upregulation of mRNA for ghrelin and TNF-alpha in colonic mucosa as compared to that observed in healthy controls.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of ghrelin associated with inflammatory bowel disease
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19617644 Disease Relevance 1.03 Pain Relevance 0.24
In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, RX77368 (50 ng) ic induced a significant bipeak increase in serum total ghrelin levels from the basal of 8.7+/-1.7 ng/ml to 13.4+/-2.4 ng/ml at 30 min and 14.5+/-2.0 ng/ml at 90 min, which was prevented by either bilateral vagotomy (-60 min) or atropine pretreatment (2 mg/kg, -30 min) but magnified by bilateral adrenalectomy (-60 min).
Positive_regulation (increase) of ghrelin
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16959836 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.22
Following pancreatitis induction, serum ghrelin levels increased at 24 hr and reached the peak level at 48 hr.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin associated with pancreatitis
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 1.37 Pain Relevance 0.17
Our own work using mouse models has revealed that increasing circulating ghrelin levels by 10 days of calorie restriction or by acute s.c. injection produces antidepressant-like responses in the forced swim test [9].
Positive_regulation (increasing) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant and eae
8) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.13
Thus, it has been suggested that activation of ghrelin signaling pathways in response to chronic stress may be a homeostatic adaptation that helps individuals cope with stress (Figure 1, lower panel).
Positive_regulation (activation) of ghrelin associated with stress
9) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.18
The gastroprotective effect of ghrelin is mediated by endogenous NO release and requires the integrity of sensory nerve fibers.
Neg (NO) Positive_regulation (mediated) of ghrelin in sensory nerve
10) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 12488364 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.21
Moreover, rikkunshito is also an enhancement of ghrelin receptor reactivity via PDE3 inhibition.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of ghrelin
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.03
Intraduodenal ghrelin at doses of 1.0 or 10.0 microg/kg increased plasma concentrations of CCK and ghrelin.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin in plasma
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 17462749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
The gastroprotective effect of ghrelin is mediated by endogenous NO release and requires the integrity of sensory nerve fibers.
Positive_regulation (requires) of ghrelin in sensory nerve
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 12488364 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.21
In addition, human subjects subjected acutely to psychosocial stress also display increased plasma ghrelin [13].
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin in plasma associated with stress
14) Confidence 0.48 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.06
We have shown that ghrelin's ability to decrease immobility in the forced swim test is dependent on the presence of orexin [9], and previous work has demonstrated that the antidepressant-like responses to calorie restriction (which also causes an increase in ghrelin) requires orexin [29].
Positive_regulation (increase) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant and eae
15) Confidence 0.48 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.27
Future studies should also be directed towards determining the mechanisms by which ghrelin acts to have its effects on mood-related and anxiety-related behaviors as well as the pathways responsible for the stress-induced elevations in ghrelin.



Positive_regulation (elevations) of ghrelin associated with stress and anxiety disorder
16) Confidence 0.48 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.11
Circulating ghrelin levels negatively correlate with BMI, meaning increased ghrelin secretion during fasting, malnutrition, cachexia, and in anorexia nervosa and reduced ghrelin secretion in obesity.
Positive_regulation (Circulating) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss, obesity and eating disorder
17) Confidence 0.46 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.24 Pain Relevance 1.09
Regarding antipsychotic treatment for example, it was reported that olanzapine would increase plasma ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia [59] and that acute administration of clozapin increases circulating plasma ghrelin levels in rats [58].
Positive_regulation (increase) of ghrelin in plasma associated with schizophrenia
18) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.06
Regarding antipsychotic treatment for example, it was reported that olanzapine would increase plasma ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia [59] and that acute administration of clozapin increases circulating plasma ghrelin levels in rats [58].
Positive_regulation (increases) of ghrelin in plasma associated with schizophrenia
19) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.12
These findings suggest that the mechanism of improvement of anorexia by rikkunshito may involve ghrelin receptor activation via stimulation of ghrelin secretion from the stomach into the plasma.
Positive_regulation (activation) of ghrelin in plasma associated with appetite loss
20) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.16

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