INT1108

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Context Info
Confidence 0.75
First Reported 1978
Last Reported 2010
Negated 5
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 58
Total Number 65
Disease Relevance 36.57
Pain Relevance 10.76

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (PPY)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 3
fibroblasts 3
B cells 3
fat 2
skin 2
PPY (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
pain pelvic 570 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Paracetamol 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 14 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 11 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 123 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 10 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
epidural 6 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 10 98.86 Very High Very High Very High
backache 24 98.18 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 37 96.76 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Reprotox - General 3 572 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Precocious Puberty 64 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 266 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Islet Cell Adenoma 3 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 210 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Asthma 27 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Syncope 45 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Porphyria 33 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 110 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Squamous Cell Carcinoma 4 99.40 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Immunocytochemical quantitation of the distribution of insulin (B), glucagon (A), somatostatin (D) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) producing cells revealed a significant relative increase in the number of A cells and a decrease in the number of B cells of the sclerosis islets in primary chronic pancreatitis ((B-44.1+/-9.3%:A-38.3+/-2.4%:D-8.6+/-5.1%:PP-4.6+/-4.1%) as well as in secondary chronic pancreatitis B-38.0+/-14.3%:A-38.4+/-19.0%:D-9.1+/-5.8%:PP-14.5+/-23.4%) compared with controls (B-71.1+/-8.1%:A-24.3+/-5.5%:D-8.0+/-2.8%:PP-0.5+/-0.4%).
Gene_expression (producing) of PP in B cells associated with sclerosis, somatostatin and chronic pancreatitis
1) Confidence 0.75 Published 1978 Journal Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol Section Abstract Doc Link 147559 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.57
PP is detectable in 98% of patients with cardiac tamponade, where it is one of three key findings, the other being elevated neck veins (sensitivity 100%) and tachycardia (sensitivity 77%–100%).
Gene_expression (detectable) of PP in veins associated with heart rate under development and cv unclassified under development
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0
The mean plasma glucose excursion was reduced by 90%, falling into the normal range, after breakfast, whereas plasma pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, and acetaminophen levels were reduced, and insulin levels were not affected.
Gene_expression (reduced) of pancreatic polypeptide in plasma associated with paracetamol
3) Confidence 0.65 Published 2004 Journal J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Abstract Doc Link 15240633 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.23
Immunocytochemical quantitation of the distribution of insulin (B), glucagon (A), somatostatin (D) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) producing cells revealed a significant relative increase in the number of A cells and a decrease in the number of B cells of the sclerosis islets in primary chronic pancreatitis ((B-44.1+/-9.3%:A-38.3+/-2.4%:D-8.6+/-5.1%:PP-4.6+/-4.1%) as well as in secondary chronic pancreatitis B-38.0+/-14.3%:A-38.4+/-19.0%:D-9.1+/-5.8%:PP-14.5+/-23.4%) compared with controls (B-71.1+/-8.1%:A-24.3+/-5.5%:D-8.0+/-2.8%:PP-0.5+/-0.4%).
Gene_expression (producing) of PP in B cells associated with sclerosis, somatostatin and chronic pancreatitis
4) Confidence 0.65 Published 1978 Journal Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol Section Abstract Doc Link 147559 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.57
PP is also absent in conditions with fixed cardiac output such as supravalvular, valvular and subvalvular aortic stenosis, mitral valve stenosis, and in conditions with severely impaired left ventricular systolic function such as severe cardiomyopathy or acute myocardial infarction.
Neg (absent) Gene_expression (absent) of PP in mitral valve associated with mitral valve stenosis, cv general 2 under development, subvalvular aortic stenosis and myocardial infarction
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0
Therefore, PP is absent in cardiac tamponade associated with an atrial septal defect (when the right ventricle does not fill more during inspiration), and in aortic regurgitation (when the left ventricle fills from a different source than the left atrium).
Neg (absent) Gene_expression (absent) of PP in left atrium associated with cv general 2 under development, cv unclassified under development and aortic valve insufficiency
6) Confidence 0.59 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0
In spite of apparent autonomic dysfunction, PP levels in the LTOT group were significantly higher than in the controls (p < 0.01-0.001) and the normoxemic group (p < 0.05-0.01).
Gene_expression (levels) of PP in autonomic
7) Confidence 0.58 Published 1996 Journal J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. Section Abstract Doc Link 8912267 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.11
Gallbladder volume and plasma levels of CCK, PP, motilin, gastrin, neurotensin, cholylglycine were measured regularly.
Gene_expression (levels) of PP in plasma
8) Confidence 0.58 Published 2005 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Body Doc Link 16185316 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Immunocytochemical quantitation of the distribution of insulin (B), glucagon (A), somatostatin (D) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) producing cells revealed a significant relative increase in the number of A cells and a decrease in the number of B cells of the sclerosis islets in primary chronic pancreatitis ((B-44.1+/-9.3%:A-38.3+/-2.4%:D-8.6+/-5.1%:PP-4.6+/-4.1%) as well as in secondary chronic pancreatitis B-38.0+/-14.3%:A-38.4+/-19.0%:D-9.1+/-5.8%:PP-14.5+/-23.4%) compared with controls (B-71.1+/-8.1%:A-24.3+/-5.5%:D-8.0+/-2.8%:PP-0.5+/-0.4%).
Gene_expression (producing) of pancreatic polypeptide in B cells associated with sclerosis, somatostatin and chronic pancreatitis
9) Confidence 0.58 Published 1978 Journal Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol Section Abstract Doc Link 147559 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.58
In particular, conditions characterised by laboured respiration (asthma) may present with PP.
Gene_expression (present) of PP associated with asthma
10) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0
In only 2% of patients with tamponade, a PP is absent due to one of five associated disorders: (1) atrial septal defect, (2) severe left ventricular dysfunction, (3) regional tamponade (tamponade affecting only one or two heart chambers, a complication of cardiac surgery), (4) severe hypotension and (5) aortic regurgitation.
Neg (absent) Gene_expression (absent) of PP in heart chambers associated with left ventricular dysfunction, cv general 2 under development, cv unclassified under development and aortic valve insufficiency
11) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 1.41 Pain Relevance 0
However, PP assessment is often considered time-consuming and only rarely are students instructed to practise their skill in determining PP, which thus remains largely underused in the clinical setting.


Gene_expression (assessment) of PP
12) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 0.97 Pain Relevance 0
The haemodynamic weight of pericardial effusion and the presence of cardiac tamponade was finally recognised after the third episode of syncope when PP was appreciated.
Gene_expression (appreciated) of PP associated with pressure and volume under development, cv unclassified under development and syncope
13) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.07
Nevertheless, owing to the presence of the PP, a possible diagnosis of cardiac tamponade was made together with the decision to alert the cardiac surgery ward, and to operate immediately.
Gene_expression (presence) of PP associated with cv unclassified under development
14) Confidence 0.58 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0.18
In insufficiently treated diabetics elevated basal and postprandial serum levels of PP are found, which return to normal when adequate treatment is administered.
Gene_expression (levels) of PP associated with diabetes mellitus
15) Confidence 0.55 Published 1985 Journal Acta Med. Austriaca Section Abstract Doc Link 3832746 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.18
PP is detected by palpating the pulse or by using BP measurement (cuff sphygmomanometer).
Gene_expression (detected) of PP
16) Confidence 0.52 Published 2007 Journal Intern Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2780608 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0
The recombinant plasmid was found to express an approximately 30 kDa prohormone, which was recognized by a Met-Arg6-Phe2 antibody, directed against the C-terminal part of the enkephalin A prohormone.
Gene_expression (express) of prohormone associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.52 Published 1990 Journal Biosci. Rep. Section Abstract Doc Link 2178006 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Patients who underwent curative resection are asymptomatic with normal serum levels of PP.
Gene_expression (levels) of PP
18) Confidence 0.46 Published 1984 Journal Arch Surg Section Abstract Doc Link 6143548 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.07
Erythropoietic protoporphyria is an inherited disorder of heme biosynthesis caused by partial ferrochelatase deficiency, resulting in protoporphyrin (PP) overproduction by erythrocytes.
Gene_expression (overproduction) of PP in erythrocytes associated with porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria
19) Confidence 0.45 Published 2005 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15677551 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.10
Eight patients with pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-producing islet cell tumors and one patient with pseudo-PP-producing tumors were examined.
Gene_expression (producing) of PP associated with islet cell adenoma and cancer
20) Confidence 0.40 Published 1984 Journal Arch Surg Section Abstract Doc Link 6143548 Disease Relevance 0.94 Pain Relevance 0.09

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