INT111488

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Context Info
Confidence 0.77
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 56
Total Number 59
Disease Relevance 32.60
Pain Relevance 15.29

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups (HAS1) cell adhesion (HAS1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
synovium 17
joint 4
synovial fluid 3
lining cells 2
TMJ 1
HAS1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
rheumatoid arthritis 1443 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 1509 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 163 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 37 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 263 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 51 97.24 Very High Very High Very High
Snapping jaw 12 96.88 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 1 75.04 Quite High
Analgesic 47 50.72 Quite High
metalloproteinase 10 28.56 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Rheumatoid Arthritis 1443 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 1549 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 15 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 43 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 126 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Lipodystrophy 10 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 111 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 302 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Colon Cancer 21 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome 12 96.88 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Since HAS gene expression was not affected by GlcN, apart from simply providing more building blocks, GlcN could also have played a role in HA synthesis by influencing HAS enzymatic activity or protein levels.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
1) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.15
Addition of GlcN-HCl or Gluc did not alter HAS gene expression significantly.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
2) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.17
Specifically, we investigated if HA production can be stimulated by adding GlcN and if GlcN affects gene expression of the HAS enzymes.


Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
3) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.36
Thus, direct up-regulation of HAS gene expression does not seem to be the explanation for the increased amount of HA in the medium in our experiments.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
4) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.16
In accordance with Recklies et al. our results demonstrate that all 3 isoforms of HAS, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of HA, are expressed by synovium [28].
Gene_expression (expressed) of HAS in synovium
5) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.21
Finally, in the second series of experiments the effect of GlcN and Gluc on HAS gene expression was studied.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
6) Confidence 0.77 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Regulation of HAS expression in human synovial lining cells of TMJ by IL-1beta.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS in lining cells
7) Confidence 0.76 Published 2008 Journal Arch. Oral Biol. Section Title Doc Link 17868639 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.22
In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of IL-1beta on HAS gene expression and HA production by the fibroblastic synovial lining cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS gene in lining cells
8) Confidence 0.76 Published 2008 Journal Arch. Oral Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17868639 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.18
The gene expressions of hyaluronan synthase-1, hyaluronan synthase-2, and interleukin-10 which is an antiadhesive cytokine were predominant in nonadhesive bursae.
Gene_expression (expressions) of hyaluronan synthase-1 associated with cytokine
9) Confidence 0.75 Published 2003 Journal Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 12838053 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.16
Recklies et al. observed that the HAS1 message levels were always more abundant than that for HAS2 in synovial cells, and that the HAS3 message levels were always least abundant.
Gene_expression (abundant) of HAS1 in synovial cells
10) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.19
HA is synthesized by hyaluronic acid synthases (HAS) which covalently link the monomeric building blocks glucuronic acid and N-Acetyl-glucosamine (GlcN-Ac) in an alternating fashion.
Gene_expression (synthesized) of HAS
11) Confidence 0.67 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.74
From these results, it is concluded that IL-1beta functions on regulating HAS expression and consequently promoting the secretion of HA in synovial lining cells from TMJ.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS in TMJ associated with snapping jaw
12) Confidence 0.66 Published 2008 Journal Arch. Oral Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17868639 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.24
With or without treatment with IL-1beta, the production of HA was detected with radiometric assay and the expression of HAS mRNAs were analysed with a semi-quantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Spec (analysed) Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
13) Confidence 0.66 Published 2008 Journal Arch. Oral Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17868639 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.24
The production of hyaluronan in OA or RA may be decreased because of the reduced expression of HAS-1 and -2 messages.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
14) Confidence 0.61 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.54
The decreased expression of HAS-2 may be one of the causes for the reduced average molecular weight of hyaluronan in joint fluid.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS in joint
15) Confidence 0.61 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.42
This finding suggests that the protein expression of HAS-1 and -2 is decreased, as it has been reported that message levels are correlated with HAS protein levels and with the production of hyaluronan in cultured cells [40].
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
16) Confidence 0.61 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.24
Hence, it is thought that the decreased expression of HAS-1 and -2 and/or the increased expression of hyaluronidase-2 are among the causes leading to the reduced hyaluronan concentration in OA or RA synovial fluid.
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS in synovial fluid associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
17) Confidence 0.61 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.40
The average molecular weight of newly produced hyaluronan may be reduced by the decreased expression of HAS-2, because, of the three HAS isoenzymes, HAS-2 synthesizes the highest-molecular-weight hyaluronan [42].
Gene_expression (expression) of HAS
18) Confidence 0.61 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.42
Furthermore, all three HAS isoforms were expressed in the synovium explants.
Gene_expression (expressed) of HAS in synovium
19) Confidence 0.60 Published 2008 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC2553787 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.03
Differential expression of hyaluronan synthases and/or hyaluronidases may be reflected in the pathological metabolism of hyaluronan in the knee synovial fluid of patients with OA or RA.


Gene_expression (expression) of hyaluronan synthase in synovial fluid associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
20) Confidence 0.58 Published 2004 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1064865 Disease Relevance 1.51 Pain Relevance 0.71

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