INT11279

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1987
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 65
Total Number 68
Disease Relevance 18.72
Pain Relevance 30.29

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 7
neurons 5
PVN 3
mossy fiber 3
cortex 3
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 214 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 41 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 41 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 36 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn neuron 11 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Delta opioid receptors 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 32 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine 27 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 26 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Convulsion 34 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Lymphatic System Cancer 4 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Epilepsy 14 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 31 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction 4 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Aggression 2 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 5 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 38 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 100 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Mastocytoma 2 98.90 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Moreover, they show that moderate nigrostriatal lesions are sufficient to elevate Met-Enk and preproenkephalin mRNA contents and that restoration of dopaminergic function, as in our studies with GM1 ganglioside, restores the content of Met-Enk.
Positive_regulation (elevate) of preproenkephalin mRNA
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1899692 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.28
Moreover, they show that moderate nigrostriatal lesions are sufficient to elevate Met-Enk and preproenkephalin mRNA contents and that restoration of dopaminergic function, as in our studies with GM1 ganglioside, restores the content of Met-Enk.
Positive_regulation (elevate) of Met-Enk
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1991 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1899692 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.28
Preproenkephalin upregulation in nucleus caudalis: high and low intensity afferent stimulation differentially modulate early and late responses.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of Preproenkephalin in nucleus associated with qutenza
3) Confidence 0.69 Published 1990 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Title Doc Link 2081812 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.60
In the case of Zn deficient group, the inhibitions were up to 51% compared to 27% for the control and became higher as the increasing concentration of Met-Enk.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of Enk
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 1991 Journal Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao Section Abstract Doc Link 1824001 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
In particular, the up-regulated PENK gene that is induced by KA in the hippocampal dentate granule cells has proconvulsant properties.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PENK in granule cells
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16300887 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.19
Repeated cocaine produced a progressive increase in the intensity of seizures (a ca. 300% increase in the seizure score on day 5, as compared to day 1), this effect being associated with the enhancement of the proenkephalin mRNA level (ca. 240%) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.
Positive_regulation (enhancement) of proenkephalin mRNA in dentate gyrus associated with convulsion and cocaine
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 1994 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8028798 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.33
Resting mouse splenic B cells were activated with lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate (LPS/DxS) to measure both B cell proliferation and IgM/IgG isotype production when increasing concentrations of [Met5]-enkephalin (MENK) and proenkephalin (PENK) (10-16 to 10(-8) M) were added at increasing times after B cell activation (0, 3, 6, or 24 h).
Positive_regulation (increasing) of PENK in B cell associated with enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.60 Published 1997 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9058757 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43
Preproenkephalin mRNA and methionine-enkephalin content are increased in mouse striatum after treatment with nicotine.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Preproenkephalin in striatum associated with nicotine and enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.58 Published 1995 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Title Doc Link 7891117 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.78
Monkeys were gavaged with L-DOPA (15 mg/kg) twice daily for a 2-week period and killed 3 days after treatment. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment alone resulted in an increase in preproenkephalin mRNA levels as previously shown.
Positive_regulation (increase) of preproenkephalin associated with parkinson's disease
9) Confidence 0.56 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0
Met-Enk, assayed by radioimmunoassay, was increased in the ventral (nucleus accumbens) but not dorsal (putamen/caudate) striatum, while PPE mRNA, assayed in whole striatum by Northern blotting was elevated.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Met-Enk in nucleus accumbens associated with nucleus accumbens
10) Confidence 0.55 Published 2002 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 12023068 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.49
A single dose of nicotine also increased mRNA for the precursor peptide preproenkephalin (PPE).
Positive_regulation (increased) of preproenkephalin associated with nicotine
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 1995 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 7891117 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.69
The half-lives of REAL-ENK in mouse small intestinal mucosal homogenate and liver homogenate were 12 and 80 min, representing a 12- and 32-fold increase over those of ENK itself.
Positive_regulation (increase) of ENK in liver associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal J Drug Target Section Abstract Doc Link 16753826 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.29
Moreover, they show that moderate nigrostriatal lesions are sufficient to elevate Met-Enk and preproenkephalin mRNA contents and that restoration of dopaminergic function, as in our studies with GM1 ganglioside, restores the content of Met-Enk.
Positive_regulation (elevate) of Met-Enk
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 1991 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1899692 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.28
A B-cell lymphoma was negative for preproenkephalin mRNA, but several T-cell lymphomas were positive.
Positive_regulation (negative) of preproenkephalin in T-cell associated with lymphatic system cancer
14) Confidence 0.50 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3500325 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
A mastocytoma and two macrophage cell lines were found to have high levels of preproenkephalin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (levels) of preproenkephalin in macrophage associated with mastocytoma
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 1987 Journal J. Neurosci. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3500325 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
By contrast, clozapine increased the density of mu and delta opioid receptors and increased the levels of proenkephalin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (increased) of proenkephalin mRNA associated with delta opioid receptors
16) Confidence 0.49 Published 1995 Journal Biol. Psychiatry Section Abstract Doc Link 7619972 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.49
Continuous infusion of clozapine increases mu and delta opioid receptors and proenkephalin mRNA in mouse brain.
Positive_regulation (increases) of proenkephalin mRNA in brain associated with enkephalin and delta opioid receptors
17) Confidence 0.49 Published 1995 Journal Biol. Psychiatry Section Title Doc Link 7619972 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.58
Virtually all vestibular efferent neurons were positive for preproenkephalin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (positive) of preproenkephalin in efferent neurons
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 1991 Journal Exp Brain Res Section Abstract Doc Link 1769382 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
Because nigrostriatal damage per se is associated with increases in striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels, it is difficult to know if changes in transcript levels are a result of lesioning or concurrent L-DOPA treatment and resulting dyskinesias.
Positive_regulation (increases) of preproenkephalin associated with dyskinesias
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
These data show that, while elevations in striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels are associated with nigrostriatal damage, they are not linked to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.
Positive_regulation (elevations) of preproenkephalin associated with dyskinesias
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0

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