INT116824

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Context Info
Confidence 0.31
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 21.62
Pain Relevance 2.46

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

nucleolus (Rgc32) cytoskeleton (Rgc32) nucleus (Rgc32)
cell cycle (Rgc32) microtubule organizing center (Rgc32) cytoplasm (Rgc32)
Anatomy Link Frequency
RGC 5
eyes 3
optic nerve 3
neurons 1
brain 1
Rgc32 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antagonist 72 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 408 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 48 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
Buprenorphine 2 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 85 95.40 Very High Very High Very High
ketamine 14 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 163 94.72 High High
anesthesia 25 93.64 High High
Versed 2 91.56 High High
ischemia 88 89.88 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Apoptosis 619 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Death 271 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 196 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Nonarteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy 84 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Gliosis 7 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Optic Nerve Injuries 286 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 76 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Glaucoma 673 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 108 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
Scotoma 24 97.24 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The addition of carprofen to chloral hydrate did not affect RGC numbers (382.7 +/- 15.2 RGCs/mm(2); n.s.), while chloral hydrate with buprenorphine (421.1 +/- 25.1 RGCs/mm(2); p < 0.05), ketamine and xylazine (403.6 +/- 36.1 RGCs/mm(2); p < 0.05), or fentanyl with medetomidine and midazolam (481.3 +/- 10.4 RGCs/mm(2); p < 0.05) all increased RGC survival.
Negative_regulation (numbers) of RGC in RGCs associated with versed, ketamine and buprenorphine
1) Confidence 0.31 Published 2004 Journal J. Neurotrauma Section Abstract Doc Link 14987467 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.60
Indeed, detailed quantitative studies on the effects of the distance at which axotomy is performed on the time course and amount of RGC loss [27,28,30–32] have shown that optic nerve transection (ONT) close to the eye induces two phases of RGC death [28,31]: an initial rapid phase involving the loss of approximately 80% of the RGC population between day 4–5 and day 14 after injury [28,31,33]; and a second, more protracted phase involving the loss of 15%–20% of the remaining RGCs and that extends for over a year after ONT [28].
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in optic nerve associated with optic nerve injuries, injury and death
2) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2779069 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.04
Previous studies by our group have quantified the time course and amount of RGC loss induced by ONT close to the eye [27,28,30–32].
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in eye associated with optic nerve injuries
3) Confidence 0.10 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2779069 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0
Because ONT induces massive RGC loss, it is likely that permanent reduction in the STR represents a lack of the RGC population, thus highlighting the importance of the STR recordings as an electrophysiological tool for the assessment of RGC function.



Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC associated with optic nerve injuries
4) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2779069 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
The decrease recorded in STRs, which was first evident by 1–2 weeks after ONT, coincides in time with the major wave of RGC loss that follows ONT in the adult rat; indeed, approximately 80% of the RGC population is lost during the first two weeks [27,28,30,31,53].
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC associated with optic nerve injuries
5) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2779069 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.09
In an optic nerve transaction rat model, we recorded RGC apoptosis in 0.3, 1, 8, and 4% of total RGCs, with RGC losses of 0, 3, 49, and 76% at 0, 3, 7, and 12 days, respectively.
Negative_regulation (losses) of RGC in optic nerve associated with apoptosis
6) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.09
The combination therapy produced the maximal reduction of RGC apoptosis (>80%).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of RGC associated with apoptosis
7) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0
Using DARC, we showed that all treatments reduced RGC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and that MK801 was more effective than ifenprodil.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of RGC associated with apoptosis
8) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.22
Relatively increased RGC numbers were seen centrally, closer to the ON (Figure 2A).
Negative_regulation (numbers) of RGC
9) Confidence 0.06 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0
NAION produces RGC loss and ON gliosis, with sparing of other retinal neurons [3,5].
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in neurons associated with nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and gliosis
10) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 1.16 Pain Relevance 0.24
Stereological analysis of post-rAION RGC numbers was performed, using retrograde RGC fill-labeling with fluorogold.


Negative_regulation (numbers) of RGC in RGC
11) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.08
There was an average 65% loss of RGCs in estrogen-treated animals and 70% RGC loss in vehicle treated animals.
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC
12) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.04
RGC axon loss patterns were similar in both rAION-induced vehicle and estrogen-treated animals.
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC
13) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0
Following rAION, a 25%–75% RGC loss was demonstrable in estrogen treated animals post-infarct as; compared with contralateral control (naive) eyes (Figure 3, estrogen).
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in eyes
14) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0
A similar RGC loss was seen in vehicle-treated animals as, compared with contralateral naive control eyes (Figure 3, compare rAION and control results in the vehicle group).
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in eyes
15) Confidence 0.05 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2185481 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.03
Moreover, given that RGC loss plays a key role in glaucoma with RGC apoptosis being recognized as early event (Quigley et al., 1995; Cordeiro et al., 2004), it would be a fundamental advance if RGC apoptosis could be monitored in evaluating therapeutic efficiency.
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC associated with glaucoma and apoptosis
16) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 1.39 Pain Relevance 0.06
drugs used in the treatment of AD patients are also effective in prevention of RGC death in experimental glaucoma (Guo et al., 2007).
Negative_regulation (prevention) of RGC in RGC associated with glaucoma, disease and death
17) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 1.49 Pain Relevance 0.07
Blocking NMDA receptors by specific antagonists has been shown to be effective in reducing RGC death in experimental glaucoma.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of RGC associated with antagonist, nmda receptor, glaucoma and death
18) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.41
Currently, the most widely advocated neuroprotective agents in the prevention of RGC death are modifiers of the glutamate pathway, as this, somewhat controversially, is implicated in the development of glaucomatous RGC death (Dreyer et al., 1996; Lipton, 2004b; Guo et al., 2006).
Negative_regulation (prevention) of RGC in RGC associated with glutamate and death
19) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 1.69 Pain Relevance 0.09
leading to RGC loss as implicated in the brain (Loffler et al., 1995; Vickers et al., 1995; Archer et al., 1998; Johnson et al., 2002).
Negative_regulation (loss) of RGC in brain
20) Confidence 0.04 Published 2008 Journal Progress in Brain Research Section Body Doc Link PMC2603274 Disease Relevance 1.31 Pain Relevance 0.03

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