INT116902

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Context Info
Confidence 0.47
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2009
Negated 1
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 19
Disease Relevance 13.56
Pain Relevance 4.27

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (CD28) plasma membrane (CD28)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 13
blood 1
naive T cells 1
CD28 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 267 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 274 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
spinal inflammation 419 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 1 91.20 High High
rheumatoid arthritis 79 90.28 High High
Arthritis 42 89.44 High High
iatrogenic 3 88.76 High High
spondylitis 38 65.12 Quite High
Kinase C 16 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
chemokine 16 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Shock 10 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Cytomegalovirus Infection 160 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 99 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Low Back Pain 457 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Acute Coronary Syndrome 10 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 421 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Progression 5 97.70 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 338 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Immunodeficiency 5 96.92 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Artery Disease 4 96.32 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In our study, the levels of CD8+ CD28- T cells were not correlated with the age of the subjects, whereas others had observed an accumulation of CD8+ CD28-T cells in the elderly, including centenarians [12,13,14].
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28 in T cells
1) Confidence 0.47 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.39
This increase of CD8+ CD28-cells, together with reduced circulating naive CD8+ T cells correlates with immunodeficiency during aging [15,16].
Positive_regulation (increase) of CD28 in T cells associated with aging and immunodeficiency
2) Confidence 0.47 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 1.15 Pain Relevance 0.30
As a considerable number of AS patients tested seronegative for CMV, but showed an accumulation of CD8+ CD28- T cells in the peripheral blood, the two phenomena appear to be independent of each other in AS patients.


Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28 in blood associated with spinal inflammation and cytomegalovirus infection
3) Confidence 0.44 Published 2002 Journal Arthritis Res Section Body Doc Link PMC64855 Disease Relevance 2.22 Pain Relevance 0.88
In AS patients the percentage of CD3+CD4+ T cells lacking the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 was significantly increased as compared with the control individuals (7.40 ± 6.6% versus 1.03 ± 1.0%; P < 0.001; Fig. 1a).
Positive_regulation (increased) of CD28 in T cells associated with spinal inflammation
4) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.45
Other factors, including age, were not correlated with levels of CD4+CD28- T cells in our cohorts of AS patients and healthy control indivuduals, although others had observed an accumulation of CD4+CD28- T cells in unselected elderly patients [34].
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28 in T cells associated with spinal inflammation
5) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 1.09 Pain Relevance 0.39
Prevalence of CD4+CD28- T cells in ankylosing spondylitis patients and healthy control individuals
Positive_regulation (Prevalence) of CD28 in T cells associated with spinal inflammation
6) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.34
To examine possible NK receptor-mediated effects of HLA-B27 on activation of CD4+CD28- T cells, short term cell lines were co-cultured with the HLA-B*2705 transfected cell line C1R-B27 or the nontransfected cell line C1R in the presence or absence of CD3 mediated stimulation.
Spec (possible) Positive_regulation (activation) of CD28 in T cells
7) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Surface expressions of NK receptors, including killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (NKB1, CD158a/h [KIR2DL1/KIR2DS1], CD158b/j [KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3/ KIR2DS2]) and the C-type lectin receptor CD94, were examined in 11 subsequent patients with increased levels of CD4+CD28- T cells.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (increased) of CD28 in T cells
8) Confidence 0.38 Published 2003 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC193730 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
However, recent reports suggest that changes occurring in immunosenescence including the accumulation of anergic CD8+ CD28?
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of CD28
9) Confidence 0.34 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684090 Disease Relevance 1.24 Pain Relevance 0.21
In T cells, stabilization of cytokine mRNA occurs after the stimulation of the TCR and CD28 [100].
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28 in T cells associated with cytokine
10) Confidence 0.29 Published 2006 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1526596 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.14
CD4+ T cells also require CD28 for adequate activation; with aging, the proportion of CD4+ cells expressing little or no CD28 increases significantly, along with telomere shortening in both CD4+ CD28?
Neg (little) Positive_regulation (increases) of CD28 in T cells associated with aging
11) Confidence 0.25 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684090 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0
However, recent reports suggest that changes occurring in immunosenescence including the accumulation of anergic CD8+ CD28?
Positive_regulation (anergic) of CD28
12) Confidence 0.25 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684090 Disease Relevance 1.23 Pain Relevance 0.21
The IRP includes increased levels of CD8+ CD28?
Positive_regulation (increased) of CD28
13) Confidence 0.23 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684090 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.10
expression induced by TCR and CD28 stimulation in human T cells, a moderate and transient reduction of IFN-?
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28 in T cells
14) Confidence 0.21 Published 2006 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1526596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
expression induced by TCR/CD28 stimulation seems to be independent of p38, that induced by stimulation by means of the TCR and the co-stimulatory receptor CD26 (A6H antigen) was decreased in the presence of a p38 MAPK inhibitor [47], suggesting that different co-stimulatory molecules might induce IFN-?
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2006 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1526596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Whereas the p38 MAPK pathway can be activated by CD28 stimulation alone in memory CD4 T cells, naive T cells strictly require concomitant TCR signaling [51], indicating that naive T cells are lacking an important molecule necessary to link the CD28 signaling to the p38 MAPK signaling cascade.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28 in naive T cells
16) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1526596 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.10
To test T cells for the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA, monocyte-depleted CD4+CD28null and CD4+CD28+ T cells were isolated from patients as well as from healthy controls (CD4+CD28+ T cells).
Positive_regulation (isolated) of CD28null in T cells
17) Confidence 0.18 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1297589 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.60
Nef expression has been shown to correlate with high viral titers and disease progression; lipid raft-associated Nef has been shown to prime T cell activation through IL-2 secretion resulting from CD3 or CD28 stimulation, promoting HIV-1 replication and virus spread [53].
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of CD28 in T cell associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome or hiv infection and disease progression
18) Confidence 0.16 Published 2009 Journal Trials Section Body Doc Link PMC2705367 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0
Heat-shock protein 60-reactive CD4+CD28null T cells in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
Positive_regulation (60-reactive) of CD28null in T cells associated with acute coronary syndrome, inflammation and shock
19) Confidence 0.00 Published 2004 Journal Circulation Section Title Doc Link 14993140 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.14

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