INT117855

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 2003
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 29
Total Number 44
Disease Relevance 17.52
Pain Relevance 5.00

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 7
stomach 4
brain 2
blood 2
pituitary 2
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
agonist 372 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
depression 44 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
sSRI 15 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 39 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 10 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 31 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
nud 117 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 422 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 29 96.16 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Depression 50 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 263 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Thyroid Disease 24 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 20 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 601 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 51 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 54 99.30 Very High Very High Very High
Sleep Disorders 57 99.10 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 38 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
Hypertension 35 98.64 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Protein (more than lipid) ingestion strongly suppresses plasma acylghrelin, whereas carbohydrate initially suppresses and then elevates circulating ghrelin in humans [147].
Negative_regulation (suppresses) of ghrelin in plasma
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.13
Based on the above analyses, we propose a hypothesis that the diminution of the susceptibility to pain in lean subjects/animals may be induced by the increase in endogenous ghrelin activity, or increased of the susceptibility to pain in obese subject/animals may be induced by the decrease in endogenous ghrelin activity.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of ghrelin associated with pain and obesity
2) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.72
For example, tryptophan – the precursor molecule of serotonin – enhances ghrelin expression and secretion [115], antidepressant therapy with an SSRI may attenuate hypothalamic effects of ghrelin [8], and antidepressant therapy with mirtazapine seems to decrease ghrelin levels [83].
Negative_regulation (decrease) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant, ssri and serotonin
3) Confidence 0.42 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.53
These scientists concluded that short sleep deprivation in young, healthy males was associated with decreased leptin levels and increased ghrelin levels, with subsequent increased hunger and appetite [124].


Negative_regulation (decreased) of ghrelin associated with sleep disorders
4) Confidence 0.42 Published 2005 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2129146 Disease Relevance 1.35 Pain Relevance 0
Concomitant oral administration of rikkunshito with an SSRI suppressed the decrease in plasma acylated ghrelin, changed the fed-like motor activity to fasted activity, improved anorexia, and enhanced gastric emptying.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of ghrelin in plasma associated with appetite loss and ssri
5) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.22
Plasma gastrin was higher in fundectomized rats, while plasma leptin and ghrelin were lower.
Negative_regulation (lower) of ghrelin in plasma
6) Confidence 0.42 Published 2004 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15608362 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.07
While TNF-alpha and IL-1beta can be used as a prognostic factor in the first 24 hr, ghrelin and leptin can be used subsequently.
Negative_regulation (used) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17333355 Disease Relevance 1.31 Pain Relevance 0.03
Acylghrelin, unlike the naked peptide, is a consistently effective agonist of GH secretion in multiple species from fish to mammals [34, 65, 215–221].
Negative_regulation (agonist) of ghrelin associated with agonist
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.08
We studied the effects of peripheral (i.p.) and central (i.c.v.) administration of ghrelin on gastric secretion and gastric mucosal lesions induced by 3 h of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) with or without inhibition of ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue type 1a receptor (GHS-R1a) by using ghrelin antagonist, d-Lys(3)-GHRP-6; blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (indomethacin, SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethylpyrazole]) and COX-2 (rofecoxib); and bilateral vagotomy or capsaicin denervation.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of ghrelin associated with qutenza, antagonist and ischemia
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 2006 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 16868036 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.22
The protective and hyperemic activities of ghrelin were significantly attenuated in rats pretreated with d-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 and capsaicin denervation and completely abolished by vagotomy.
Negative_regulation (abolished) of ghrelin associated with qutenza
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 2006 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 16868036 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.33
In vivo the effect of ghrelin can be blocked by vagotomy and there is evidence for ghrelin receptors on vagal afferents and in the nodose ganglion.
Negative_regulation (blocked) of ghrelin in ganglion associated with ganglion cysts
11) Confidence 0.35 Published 2003 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 15075452 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.16
The action of ghrelin was completely inhibited by hexamethonium and D-Lys(3)-growth-hormone releasing peptide-6.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of ghrelin
12) Confidence 0.34 Published 2010 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Body Doc Link 19840269 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Contrastingly, glucocorticoid deficiency, and glucocorticoid excess alter the GHS axis by, respectively, diminishing blood ghrelin and brain GHS-R1a levels [421, 602, 603].
Negative_regulation (diminishing) of ghrelin in brain
13) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.12
Nonetheless, mutational reduction of constitutive ghrelin-receptor activity in humans is associated with short stature [27].
Negative_regulation (reduction) of ghrelin associated with growth problems
14) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.04
Atropine partially decreased the stimulatory action of ghrelin.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ghrelin
15) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Section Body Doc Link 19840269 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Vicennati et al. (30) study showed that in the presence of obesity, women had a decreased ghrelin/obestatin ratio.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ghrelin associated with obesity
16) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
Most of the previous studies which showed the negative effects of obestatin on the gastrointestinal motility have only measured the gastric emptying or MMC cycle time as indices for motor activity.
Negative_regulation (effects) of obestatin
17) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915652 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
Although ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin, and obestatin are derived from a common prohormone, originating from endocrine cells in the stomach, their roles on the gastrointestinal motility are quite different each other.
Negative_regulation (derived) of obestatin in stomach
18) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915652 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
I.v. injection of obestatin decreased the %MI of fed motility in the antrum and prolonged the time before the return of fasted motility in the duodenum [14] (Figure 4(a)).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of obestatin in duodenum
19) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915652 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Many researchers reported that H. pylori infection causes a marked reduction in plasma ghrelin levels (21).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of ghrelin in plasma associated with infection
20) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.09

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