INT119412

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Context Info
Confidence 0.66
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 15
Total Number 16
Disease Relevance 11.27
Pain Relevance 3.39

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Snca) mitochondrion (Snca) oxidoreductase activity (Snca)
histone binding (Snca) plasma membrane (Snca) cytoskeleton (Snca)
Anatomy Link Frequency
DA neurons 2
Nerve 2
neurons 1
spinal cord 1
brain 1
Snca (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
adenocard 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nerve growth factor 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 6 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 312 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
midbrain 88 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 82 97.72 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 44 92.84 High High
Ventral tegmentum 160 91.92 High High
cva 10 76.52 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cancer 39 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 31 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 16 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 605 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 194 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 70 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 38 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Dementia 1 94.60 High High
Stress 54 94.00 High High
Restless Legs Syndrome 4 93.68 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alphaS) in the brain has been implicated as a critical step in the development of Lewy body diseases (LBD) [Parkinson's disease (PD)/dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)] and multiple system atrophy (MSA).
Gene_expression (aggregation) of alpha-synuclein in body associated with parkinson's disease, dementia, multiple system atrophy and disease
1) Confidence 0.66 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18164319 Disease Relevance 1.04 Pain Relevance 0.38
Lewy bodies were not identified and alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry was uniformly negative.
Neg (negative) Gene_expression (negative) of alpha-synuclein associated with parkinson's disease
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 2004 Journal Mov. Disord. Section Abstract Doc Link 15197711 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.16
This study provides the first immunohistochemical evidence of the presence and distribution patterns in the rat spinal cord of alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn), a soluble acidic protein, widely expressed in the CNS and closely associated to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.
Gene_expression (expressed) of alpha-synuclein in spinal cord associated with disease, neurodegenerative disease and spinal cord
3) Confidence 0.52 Published 2009 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 19118601 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.12
The quantitative analysis indicated that alpha-synuclein expression in the SNc was up-regulated by 156.1% in 12-µg group as compared to 3-µg group (Figure 5E, I and Figure 4L), while the TH immunoreactivities in the lesioned SNc were decreased by 38.6% and 77.3% as compared to the contralateral SNc (Figure 5B, F, J and Figure 4L).


Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein
4) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.16
Moreover, the double-immunohistostaining study suggested that rotenone-induced alpha-synuclein expression was increased in a dose-dependent manner.
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein
5) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.23
The double immunohistostaining of alpha-synuclein and TH showed a dose-dependent decrease in the number of TH-positive neurons, an increase in alpha-synuclein expression in the lesioned brain (Figure 5).
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein in brain
6) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.16
100 dilution and alpha-synuclein, 1?
Gene_expression (dilution) of alpha-synuclein
7) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
The rotenone infusion also reduced the DA content, the glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities, and induced alpha-synuclein expression, when compared to the contralateral side.
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein associated with dopamine
8) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.25
Moreover, alpha-synuclein expression in the DA neurons was not mentioned in these studies [28], [29].
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein in DA neurons associated with dopamine
9) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.35
More importantly, compared to the SYS model, the ST model was further validated by the detection of alpha-synuclein expression and the ultrastructural changes in SNc.


Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein
10) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.30
Moreover, these models are of limited value due to some significant limitations, such as a rapid loss of DA neurons, a failure to induce typical brain lesions, an absence of alpha-synuclein expression, and the potential of systemic toxicity.
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein in DA neurons associated with toxicity and dopamine
11) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.15
However, alpha-synuclein expression is not found in these models [14].
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein
12) Confidence 0.36 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.04
In summary, the main features of our current model include: 1) a one-time, low-dose ST infusion of rotenone could generate a characteristic decrease in the nigrostriatal TH immunoreactivity; 2) APO-induced rotations progressed gradually until the 24th week; 3) rotenone depleted DA, but not 5-HT at the beginning in the low-dose groups; 4) the GSH and SOD activities were lowered, and the generation of MDA was increased in the midbrain treated with rotenone; 5) alpha-synuclein expression was increased, and TH-positive neurons were decreased, both in a dose-dependent fashion; 6) the infused SNc developed characteristic ultrastructural changes of abnormal mitochondria; 7) the SYS model can reproduce the typical behaviors of PD but is associated with peripheral toxicity; and 8) after rotenone infusion for four weeks, all the ST model rats and ten of the twelve SYS models showed representative behavioral features of PD.
Gene_expression (expression) of alpha-synuclein in neurons associated with toxicity, dopamine, midbrain and disease
13) Confidence 0.31 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2774159 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.17
Finally, treatment with phenelzine resulted in up-regulation of three (Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor superfamily receptor alpha 2, Macrophage expressed gene 1, Fyn proto-oncogene), 14 (Nerve growth factor beta, Midkine, Type 1 tumor necrosis factor receptor regulator, Jun D proto-oncogene, Adenosine A1 receptor, Leptin receptor, Adrenomedullin, Arrestin beta 1, Syntaxin 1A, Epsin 1, Caspase 8, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, Synuclein alpha, Amyloid beta precursor protein), and five (Transforming growth factor beta 2, Growth differentiation factor 15, Regucalcin, Syntaxin 11, Homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase) genes and down-regulation of four (Immunoglobulin superfamily member 6, Secreted phosphoprotein 1, Phospholipase A2 activating protein, Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6), three (Serum amyloid A 4, Apoptosis facilitator Bcl-2-like protein 14, Interferon gamma), and two (Tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 6, Granzyme A) genes after treatment for one, three and seven days, respectively (Table 1 and 2).
Gene_expression (expressed) of Synuclein alpha in Nerve associated with necrosis, adenocard, nerve growth factor, cancer, alzheimer's dementia and apoptosis
14) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC3009642 Disease Relevance 1.64 Pain Relevance 0.25
Treatment with imipramine resulted in significant up-regulation of three (Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor superfamily receptor alpha 2, Macrophage expressed gene 1, Tumor necrosis factor member 11), 13 (Nerve growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor receptor regulator, Jun D proto-oncogene, Adenosine A1 receptor, Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2, Somatostatin receptor 5, Leptin receptor, Arrestin beta 1, Epsin 1, Caspase 8, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, Synuclein alpha, Amyloid beta precursor protein), and five (Transforming growth factor beta 2, RAB6A member RAS oncogene family, Regucalcin, Syntaxin 11, Homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase) genes and down-regulation of five (Leukocyte cell derived chemotaxin 1, Phospholipase A2 activating protein, Mitogen-activated protein kinase), one (Interferon gamma), and two (Tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 6, Granzyme A) genes after one, three and seven days of treatment, respectively.
Gene_expression (expressed) of Synuclein alpha in Nerve associated with necrosis, adenocard, nerve growth factor, cancer, alzheimer's dementia and somatostatin
15) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC3009642 Disease Relevance 1.38 Pain Relevance 0.29
It was found that a double-mutant human alpha-synuclein overexpressing mouse exposed to pesticides (maneb and paraquat) showed SN DA cell loss in greater magnitude than either single insult alone [79].
Gene_expression (overexpressing) of alpha-synuclein associated with dopamine and substantia nigra
16) Confidence 0.05 Published 2008 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2292163 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.35

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