INT1199

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1975
Last Reported 2011
Negated 22
Speculated 15
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 579
Total Number 603
Disease Relevance 399.64
Pain Relevance 50.43

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (INS) small molecule metabolic process (INS) extracellular region (INS)
carbohydrate metabolic process (INS) cell-cell signaling (INS)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 47
blood 39
fat 13
muscle 9
adipose tissue 9
INS (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 554 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Bioavailability 182 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 140 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
headache 128 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 127 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 2998 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 60 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Diabetes Mellitus 17219 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 5053 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 4187 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 2832 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Metabolic Syndrome 1603 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 1581 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperglycemia 1261 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperinsulinism 863 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 717 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 523 100.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
However, there is a strong need for studies on the basal insulin for prolonged pulmonary delivery as several companies are developing fast acting insulin for pulmonary delivery5152.
Positive_regulation (acting) of insulin
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2792528 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
A probable hyperplasia of beta-cells could be related to the onset of the asthmatic crisis based on the pro-inflammatory stimulation of insulin or the action of anti-asthmatic treatments in the acute attack.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of insulin associated with asthma, inflammation, status asthmaticus and hyperplasia
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 1993 Journal Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) Section Abstract Doc Link 8237722 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.14
A significative increase of insulin islets (p < 0.05) was observed in the asthmatics patients while no differences in calculated area, perimeter and diameter of pancreatic islets were recorded.
Positive_regulation (increase) of insulin in pancreatic islets associated with occupational lung diseases
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 1993 Journal Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) Section Abstract Doc Link 8237722 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.14
DBcAMP infusion at either rate increased levels of blood glucose, immunoreactive plasma insulin, blood pyruvate and blood redox-potential while it reduced levels of glycerol, non-esterified fatty acid and inorganic phosphate.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin in blood
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 1975 Journal Tohoku J. Exp. Med. Section Abstract Doc Link 174244 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Insulin secretion decreases with increased hyperglycemia (g1ucotoxicity), and diabetic subjects have increased levels of proinsulin, which is recognized by some (but not all) insulin assays.21 Insulin is reported to have considerable cross-reactivity with proinsulin.19,20,22 While the euglycemic clamp test is widely regarded as the 'gold standard' for sensitivity measurement, it remains a laboratory procedure, because it requires sophisticated equipment, highly trained personnel, and is a lengthy procedure.
Positive_regulation (increased) of proinsulin associated with hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus
5) Confidence 0.70 Published 2005 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2815832 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.08
The starting insulin doses in patients who had been on NPH insulin before the study were based on their previous insulin requirements.
Positive_regulation (requirements) of insulin
6) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2350128 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0
Smoking has a significant impact on the absorption of Exubera, with pharmacokinetic analysis indicating that absorption of inhaled insulin is increased in smokers relative to non-smokers (Becker et al 2006).
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with nicotine addiction
7) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1994047 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0.03
In a study of trauma patients, Ljungqvist and colleagues found increased insulin and glucose levels as a response to the stress of trauma [15].
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with stress, injury and hyperinsulinism
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 2004 Journal Crit Care Section Body Doc Link PMC420062 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.05
Glucose and free fatty acid concentrations were unchanged, while insulin concentrations were significantly increased.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 1993 Journal Horm. Metab. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8458615 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.58
In terms of which regimen is best with respect to improving glycemic control the results have varied, but there is a trend toward better glycemic control, increased insulin dosage, and an increased incidence of hypoglycemia with the biphasic preparations, but this has not been the case in all studies.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinism
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
The authors concluded that for patients who experience late afternoon increases in blood glucose levels, twice-daily insulin glargine is a suitable alternative which does not require an increase in insulin dosage nor does it negatively impact treatment satisfaction.


Positive_regulation (increase) of insulin in blood
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal Core Evidence Section Body Doc Link PMC3012430 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
Henry et al demonstrated that in individuals with T2DM, increasing age (>65 years) impacted the ability of inhaled insulin to lower glucose levels compared to a younger population (age 18 to 45 years) while Cmax and AUC0–360 were not different between the two groups.55 These results indicate that, in older patients, an increased inhaled insulin dose may be required to achieve comparable diabetes control.


Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with diabetes mellitus
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2835554 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0
Obese subjects displayed an increased insulin response to oral and i.v. glucose load, due to an increased first phase of insulin secretion (phi 1), a reduced insulin sensitivity (Si) and glucose effectiveness (Sg) in respect to normal-weight subjects.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with obesity and hyperinsulinism
13) Confidence 0.69 Published 1994 Journal Horm. Metab. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8082873 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.35
Although glucose intolerance was marked during surgery (K10-60 min = 0.892 +/- 0.286% min-1), the glucose-induced insulin response remained similar to that observed in patients in group II, while growth hormone, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations increased significantly.
Positive_regulation (induced) of insulin associated with impaired glucose tolerance
14) Confidence 0.69 Published 1988 Journal Anesthesiology Section Abstract Doc Link 3288006 Disease Relevance 0.48 Pain Relevance 0.75
In diabetics, acute insulin responses to glucose were significantly increased by all the agents tested (naloxone, phentolamine and lysine acetylsalicylate), but only the cyclooxygenase inhibitor significantly augmented second phase insulin secretion and glucose disappearance rates.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with diabetes mellitus and narcan
15) Confidence 0.69 Published 1985 Journal Diabete Metab Section Abstract Doc Link 3936737 Disease Relevance 0.68 Pain Relevance 0.21
In normals, insulin responses to glucose were also significantly increased by the combined infusions of the drugs, but to a significantly lesser extent than that of diabetics.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin associated with diabetes mellitus
16) Confidence 0.69 Published 1985 Journal Diabete Metab Section Abstract Doc Link 3936737 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0.16
Effective clinical trials of islet transplantation have been limited by the inability to transplant enough viable human islets into patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus to eliminate their exogenous insulin requirement.
Positive_regulation (requirement) of insulin associated with diabetes mellitus
17) Confidence 0.69 Published 1990 Journal Diabetes Section Abstract Doc Link 2108071 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.06
Her insulin requirement was also reduced.
Positive_regulation (requirement) of insulin
18) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2792735 Disease Relevance 1.65 Pain Relevance 0.14
For this hypothesis to work it is necessary that the tissues respond to the increased levels of insulin by increased uptake of glucose.
Positive_regulation (increased) of insulin
19) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC1868084 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0
An increase in insulin from approximately 75 to approximately 100 to approximately 150 pmol/l ( approximately 12.5 to approximately 17 to approximately 25 microU/ml) resulted in progressive (ANOVA; P < 0.02) suppression of EGP (13.1 +/- 1.3 vs. 11.7 +/- 1.03 vs. 6.4 +/- 2.15 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) that was entirely due to a progressive decrease (ANOVA; P < 0.05) in the contribution of glycogenolysis to EGP (4.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 3.4 +/- 1.2 vs. -2.1 +/- 1.3 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)).
Positive_regulation (increase) of insulin
20) Confidence 0.68 Published 2003 Journal Diabetes Section Abstract Doc Link 12941759 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10

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