INT12175

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 1983
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 86
Total Number 87
Disease Relevance 18.27
Pain Relevance 62.04

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell death (PDYN) extracellular region (PDYN) plasma membrane (PDYN)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 8
hippocampus 4
spinal cord 4
neurons 4
striatum 2
PDYN (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 357 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 202 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 68 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 33 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Kappa opioid receptor 24 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 6 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
MU agonist 3 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Nociception 20 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 10 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Alzheimer's Dementia 24 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperinsulinism 7 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Ductal Carcinoma 1 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 22 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Brain Injury 11 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 10 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 8 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 189 98.90 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Because PDYN is expressed in a broad range of neural and endocrine cell types and is induced by a diverse array of stimuli, our limited survey of potential functional consequences of human-specific regulatory substitutions is unlikely to have identified all such changes.
Positive_regulation (induced) of PDYN in neural
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The results of this study show that there is an increase in the levels of leu-enkephalin and dynorphin A in the frontal cortex of patients with DS as compared to the control group.
Positive_regulation (increase) of leu-enkephalin in frontal cortex associated with down syndrome, dynorphin, urological neuroanatomy and enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 1996 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8834106 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.39
The results of this study show that there is an increase in the levels of leu-enkephalin and dynorphin A in the frontal cortex of patients with DS as compared to the control group.
Positive_regulation (increase) of dynorphin in frontal cortex associated with down syndrome, dynorphin, urological neuroanatomy and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 1996 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 8834106 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.39
Cocaine treatment from day 20 to days 60 and 70 of gestation also significantly increased the mRNA concentrations of dynorphin and enkephalin in the rostral forebrain.
Positive_regulation (increased) of dynorphin in forebrain associated with dynorphin, enkephalin and cocaine
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9668406 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.76
However, under experimental or pathophysiological conditions in which dynorphin levels are substantially elevated, these peptides are excitotoxic largely through actions at glutamate receptors.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin and glutamate receptor
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 2005 Journal Front. Biosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15574363 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.44
Dietary fat stimulates endogenous enkephalin and dynorphin in the paraventricular nucleus: role of circulating triglycerides.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of dynorphin in nucleus associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 2007 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. Section Title Doc Link 17283367 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 1.00
Persistent inflammatory nociception increases levels of dynorphin 1-17 in the spinal cord, but not in supraspinal nuclei involved in pain modulation.
Positive_regulation (increases) of dynorphin in spinal cord associated with nociception, pain, dynorphin, inflammation and spinal cord
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2002 Journal J Pain Section Title Doc Link 14622757 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 1.11
As previous studies have shown enhancement of DA neurotransmission often results in elevated dynorphin and DRD1 mRNA levels in direct striatal projecting neurons, the unbalance between the direct and indirect striatal projection pathways observed in Pten KO animals could be explained by subtle but long-term changes in DA dynamics.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of dynorphin in neurons associated with dopamine and dynorphin
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2736587 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.55
The Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 and dynorphin A levels are elevated compared to the levels available for comparison groups.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of dynorphin associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.67 Published 1991 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 1684241 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.94
The increase of Leu-enkephalin was not related to such factors as type of seizure, age of onset, length of time after the last seizure, taking of antiepileptic drugs, and abnormality in cranial CT manifestation.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Leu-enkephalin in cranial associated with convulsion, enkephalin and antiepileptic drug
10) Confidence 0.62 Published 1991 Journal Zhonghua Shen Jing Jing Shen Ke Za Zhi Section Abstract Doc Link 1907903 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.73
Furthermore, the prodrugs are shown to afford global stabilization of the Leu-enkephalin molecule towards the enzymes, aminopeptidase N and angiotensin converting enzyme, primarily responsible for degradation of Leu-enkephalin at the blood-brain barrier and in plasma.
Positive_regulation (stabilization) of Leu-enkephalin in plasma associated with enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.57 Published 1999 Journal Eur J Pharm Sci Section Abstract Doc Link 9971915 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
Nicotine (10(-5), 10(-4) mol/l) significantly stimulated the secretion of immunoreactive alpha-neoendorphin and dynorphin as well as leu-enkephalin and catecholamines from cultured human phaeochromocytoma cells.
Positive_regulation (stimulated) of leu-enkephalin associated with dynorphin, catecholamine, nicotine, enkephalin and pheochromocytoma
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 1987 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2882641 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.86
At effector:target cell ratios of 11:1 methionine-enkephalin significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced NK activity at dilutions of 10(-6), 10(-8), 10(-10), and 10(-14) mg/ml, while leucine-enkephalin significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced NK activity at dilutions of 10(-4), 10(-6), 10(-8), 10(-10), and 10(-14) mg/ml.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of leucine-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 1984 Journal Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6713744 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.71
These results indicate the co-existence of Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe in human phaeochromocytomas, suggesting the preservation of amino acid sequences of these four opioid peptides even in neoplastic tissues.
Positive_regulation (co-existence) of Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu associated with enkephalin and opioid
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 1984 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6495993 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 2.31
These results indicate the co-existence of Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe in human phaeochromocytomas, suggesting the preservation of amino acid sequences of these four opioid peptides even in neoplastic tissues.
Positive_regulation (co-existence) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin and opioid
15) Confidence 0.49 Published 1984 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6495993 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 2.31
These results indicate the co-existence of Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe in human phaeochromocytomas, suggesting the preservation of amino acid sequences of these four opioid peptides even in neoplastic tissues.
Positive_regulation (co-existence) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin and opioid
16) Confidence 0.49 Published 1984 Journal Acta Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6495993 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 2.31
In this study, we report that 1) TBI transiently increases prodynorphin mRNA in the hippocampus, 2) dynorphin peptide immunoreactivity is enhanced for up to 24 hr after TBI and 3) intracerebroventricular infusion of the kappa receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) impairs subsequent performance in a spatial memory task.
Positive_regulation (increases) of prodynorphin in hippocampus associated with dynorphin, antagonist, hippocampus, intracerebroventricular and brain injury
17) Confidence 0.49 Published 2003 Journal Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) Section Abstract Doc Link 12626770 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0.47
Animal experiments have shown upregulation of proteinase-activated receptors, tryptase, beta-nerve growth factor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear transcription factor-kappaB, c-Fos, phosphodiesterase 1C, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase, and proenkephalin B.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of proenkephalin B in nerve associated with adenocard and nerve growth factor
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Urology Section Abstract Doc Link 17462476 Disease Relevance 0.92 Pain Relevance 0.64
The precursor protein prodynorphin, processing convertase PC2 and the neuroendocrine pro7B2 and 7B2 proteins required for PC2 maturation were analyzed by Western blot.
Positive_regulation (required) of prodynorphin
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Neurobiol. Aging Section Abstract Doc Link 16914231 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.60
PC2 levels were also increased, whereas, those of prodynorphin and pro7B2/7B2 were not changed in AD.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (changed) of prodynorphin associated with alzheimer's dementia
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Neurobiol. Aging Section Abstract Doc Link 16914231 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.62

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