INT125312

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 2004
Last Reported 2011
Negated 3
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 134
Total Number 137
Disease Relevance 162.55
Pain Relevance 20.27

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
lung 15
neutrophils 7
respiratory 6
macrophages 4
sputum 4
COPD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Inflammation 3532 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
metalloproteinase 645 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
palliative 182 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
cva 325 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 256 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 693 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
imagery 23 98.40 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 19 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
corticosteroid 476 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 57 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pulmonary Disease 10152 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 3980 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine Addiction 2843 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Asthma 976 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 726 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 691 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 425 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Respiratory Failure 230 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Obstructive Sleep Apnea 118 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection 108 100.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Although comorbidities play a role in overall cost burden to the VA system, comorbid conditions can also increase COPD complexity pathologically and in economic terms.
Positive_regulation (increase) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2866562 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0
Similarly, the risk of lung cancer is increased in mild COPD (Wasswa-Kintu et al 2005).
Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD in lung associated with pulmonary disease and lung cancer
2) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650603 Disease Relevance 2.22 Pain Relevance 0.04
There is a lack of data on cellular airway inflammation caused by airway pollution induced COPD exacerbations, probably since it is difficult to identify these exacerbations caused by air pollution singularly, and since air pollution also interacts with viruses, resulting in a mixed origin of the exacerbation (Gilmour et al 2001).


Positive_regulation (induced) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and inflammation
3) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2629961 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.16
In COPD, values of RV and FRC are increased to values as high as 70% and 85% of the TLC, respectively (Fishman et al 2003).
Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
4) Confidence 0.50 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707802 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
However, due to limited battery life of the recording devices, early studies may have missed periods early in the morning, when cough is particularly important for COPD patients.
Positive_regulation (important) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease, cough and reprotox - general 1
5) Confidence 0.44 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707150 Disease Relevance 1.65 Pain Relevance 0
The recent Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) (Pauwels et al 2001) classifies patients with symptoms such as cough, but without airflow obstruction as Stage 0 disease, suggesting that these patients are at risk of developing COPD.
Positive_regulation (risk) of COPD in Stage 0 associated with pulmonary disease, cough and disease
6) Confidence 0.44 Published 2006 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2707150 Disease Relevance 1.97 Pain Relevance 0
Why do patients with advanced COPD suffer from uncontrolled symptoms?
Positive_regulation (advanced) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2528206 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.26
In COPD patients, advance care planning increases patient satisfaction and sense of control, and reduces fear, anxiety and emotional distress (Smucker et al 1993; Heaven and Maguire 1997; Tierney et al 2001; Curtis et al 2004).
Positive_regulation (increases) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and anxiety disorder
8) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2528206 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0
Over the last few years, there have been increasing calls for improvements in end of life care for those with advanced COPD (Claessens et al 2000; Gore et al 2000; Edmonds et al 2001; Elkington et al 2001; Guthrie et al 2001; OÂ’Donnell et al 2003; Healthcare Commission 2006; Varkey 2006).
Positive_regulation (advanced) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
9) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2528206 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0.20
Communication issues in advanced COPD
Positive_regulation (advanced) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
10) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2528206 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0.27
Why, then, are there such considerable unmet palliative care needs in patients with advanced COPD?
Positive_regulation (advanced) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and palliative
11) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2528206 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.10
There is no evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires its own model.
Positive_regulation (requires) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease
12) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal J Pain Symptom Manage Section Abstract Doc Link 20303029 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.10
This paper highlights the need for increased provision for palliative care in COPD, alongside dedicated education and training for health professionals, and continued research to identify the most appropriate ways of delivering this care.
Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and palliative
13) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Respir Med Section Abstract Doc Link 19818590 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.27
CONCLUSIONS: COPD substantially increased 30-day mortality among patients with bleeding and perforated peptic ulcers.


Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD
14) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal Chest Section Body Doc Link 18339786 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD, but environmental and genetic factors also contribute to the disease burden.
Positive_regulation (cause) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease, nicotine addiction and disease
15) Confidence 0.43 Published 2007 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2695619 Disease Relevance 1.06 Pain Relevance 0
Furthermore, a significant number of these patients remain untreated, a finding corroborating data from other studies.21,22,25 The results underscore the undertreatment of COPD in the current health care system.
Positive_regulation (undertreatment) of COPD associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
16) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2866562 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, behind heart disease, cancer and stroke, killing more than 120,000 Americans each year.1 More than 12 million people are currently diagnosed with COPD and an additional 12 million are estimated to have a mild form of the disease.12 It is also a major cause of serious long-term disability.1 Excess healthcare expenditures are estimated at nearly $6,000 annually for every COPD patient.3 The economic burden of COPD in 2007 was estimated at $42.6 billion in treatment cost and lost productivity.4
Positive_regulation (estimated) of COPD in heart associated with pulmonary disease, stroke, cancer, heart disease, disease and death
17) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Indian Journal of Orthopaedics Section Body Doc Link PMC2947730 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0
Additionally, epithelial EGFR expression is increased in bronchial biopsies from smokers with [10,11] and without [11,12] COPD compared to non-smokers.
Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD associated with pulmonary disease and nicotine addiction
18) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2214729 Disease Relevance 2.02 Pain Relevance 0.03
Although patients with mild COPD are at increased risk of respiratory infections and respiratory failure, COPD-related hospitalizations and deaths are relatively infrequent in this group of patients (Anthonisen et al 1994).
Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD in respiratory associated with pulmonary disease, respiratory failure and lower respiratory tract infection
19) Confidence 0.40 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2650603 Disease Relevance 1.73 Pain Relevance 0
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that use of acetaminophen is associated with an increased risk of asthma and COPD, and with decreased lung function.


Positive_regulation (increased) of COPD in lung
20) Confidence 0.40 Published 2005 Journal Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. Section Body Doc Link 15735054 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0

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