INT127013

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Context Info
Confidence 0.54
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2009
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 37
Total Number 39
Disease Relevance 14.16
Pain Relevance 43.97

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Slc1a3)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spinal cord 5
spinal 4
spinal cord dorsal horn 3
retina 2
nerve 2
Slc1a3 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 1970 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 47 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 366 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 103 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 374 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal nerve ligature 4 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Antinociceptive 60 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 60 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn neuron 46 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
dexamethasone 10 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 5 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 470 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Thyroid Disease 2 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 98 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 141 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Bordatella Infection 2 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 94 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 60 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Glaucoma 112 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Hypersensitivity 71 96.92 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
These findings suggest that prevention of spinal glutamate transporter downregulation may regulate the glutamatergic function that has been implicated in the development of morphine tolerance.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of glutamate transporter in spinal associated with glutamate, tolerance and morphine
1) Confidence 0.54 Published 2008 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 18986766 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 1.49
The results showed that amitriptyline alone did not produce an antinociceptive effect, while morphine alone induced antinociceptive tolerance and down-regulation of spinal glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1) in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (down-regulation) of GLAST in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, tolerance, antinociceptive, endep, spinal cord and morphine
2) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 16697108 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.70
The loss of glial glutamate transporter GLAST or GLT-1 produced elevated extracellular glutamate levels, neurodegeneration characteristic of excitotoxicity, and a progressive paralysis [37].
Negative_regulation (loss) of GLAST associated with glutamate and paralysis
3) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.98
These changes were further confirmed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that confirmed downregulation of GLAST by 36% (P<0.05) and GLT-1 by 18% (P<0.05) in the L4-L5 spinal cord of taxol-treated rats.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of GLAST in spinal cord associated with taxol and spinal cord
4) Confidence 0.50 Published 2005 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 15975716 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.93
Decreases in GLT-1 and GLAST transporters and an ensuing accumulation of glutamate in the synaptic cleft is consistent with neurophysiological studies of spinal neurons following nerve injury [24] wherein an excess of afterdischarges was noted as a cardinal feature.
Negative_regulation (Decreases) of GLAST in nerve associated with glutamate and nervous system injury
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.50
The results from the above suggest that the decrease in GLT-1 and GLAST, which was induced by PNSL, mainly occurred in astrocytes on the injured side.


Negative_regulation (decrease) of GLAST in astrocytes
6) Confidence 0.47 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.08
This study revealed that, in brain slices, glutamate transporter inhibitors exert complex effects that cannot be attributed solely to glutamate transport inhibition.
Negative_regulation (inhibitors) of glutamate transporter in brain associated with glutamate
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 18823961 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
The present in vitro study supports the rationales for the use of glutamate transporter inhibitors.


Negative_regulation (inhibitors) of glutamate transporter associated with glutamate
8) Confidence 0.42 Published 2007 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1864984 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 1.01
We showed that ischemia-induced glutamate release was inhibited by glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA in the present study.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of glutamate transporter associated with glutamate and ischemia
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 2007 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1864984 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 1.04
Nerve injury was found to result in a decrease in the total amount of GLT-1 and GLAST at 7 and 14 days after PSNL.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of GLAST in Nerve associated with nervous system injury
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.33
The results showed that MG-132 (5 nmol) given intrathecally blocked morphine-induced glutamate transporter downregulation and the decrease in glutamate uptake activity within the spinal cord dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of glutamate transporter in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, spinal cord and morphine
11) Confidence 0.40 Published 2008 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 18986766 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 1.47
Differential effect of glutamate transporter inhibition on EPSCs in the morphine naïve and morphine tolerant neonatal spinal cord slice.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of glutamate transporter in spinal cord associated with glutamate, spinal cord and morphine
12) Confidence 0.38 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 16949209 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 1.62
Surprisingly, knock-down of GLAST in the spinal cord using antisense-oligonucleotides decreased glutamate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and reduced the nociceptive behaviour in the rat formalin assay.
Negative_regulation (knock-down) of GLAST in spinal cord associated with nociception, targeted disruption, glutamate and spinal cord
13) Confidence 0.37 Published 2006 Journal Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. Section Abstract Doc Link 16765320 Disease Relevance 0.76 Pain Relevance 0.47
Long-term morphine infusion induced antinociceptive tolerance and down-regulation of glutamate transporters (GTs), GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1, expression in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
Negative_regulation (down-regulation) of GLAST in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, tolerance, antinociceptive, spinal cord and morphine
14) Confidence 0.36 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.61
In morphine-tolerant rats, acute treatment with PKA inhibitor H89 and PKC inhibitor Gö6805 attenuated morphine tolerance and the morphine-induced CSF glutamate and aspartate elevation, and induced trafficking of GLAST and GLT-1 from cytosol onto the cell surface.
Negative_regulation (trafficking) of GLAST associated with glutamate, tolerance and morphine
15) Confidence 0.36 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 2.01
Thus, inhibition of spinal glutamate transporter might not cause the depletion of glutamate in presynaptic vesicles in pathological pain.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of glutamate transporter in vesicles associated with pain and glutamate
16) Confidence 0.35 Published 2005 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1274343 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 1.16
Unexpectedly, in pathological pain states, inhibition of glutamate transporter activity produced antinociceptive effects.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of glutamate transporter associated with pain, glutamate and antinociceptive
17) Confidence 0.35 Published 2005 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1274343 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 1.09
Recent work showed that inhibition of glutamate transporter activity depleted both glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter pools and reduced inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) and miniature IPSC amplitudes [32,33].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of glutamate transporter associated with neurotransmitter, gaba and glutamate
18) Confidence 0.35 Published 2005 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1274343 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 1.46
In contrast, the total level of GLT-1 and GLAST protein decreased at both 7 and 14 days after PSNL.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of GLAST protein
19) Confidence 0.34 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.31
Hence, the decrease of glial glutamate transporter currents recorded here during repetitive stimulation is concluded to reflect reduced release of presynaptic (afferent-derived) glutamate, which argues against the build-up of glutamate in the synaptic cleft in the formation of "windup" following repetitive stimulation.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of glutamate transporter in synaptic cleft associated with glutamate
20) Confidence 0.33 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.52

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