INT127123

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 35
Total Number 36
Disease Relevance 14.76
Pain Relevance 10.10

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Snca) mitochondrion (Snca) histone binding (Snca)
plasma membrane (Snca) cytoskeleton (Snca) nucleus (Snca)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neuronal 6
brain 4
neurons 4
striatum 2
dorsal horn 2
Snca (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ventral tegmentum 13 99.94 Very High Very High Very High
withdrawal 13 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Substantia nigra 140 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 18 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 335 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
alcohol 41 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 704 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 168 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 131 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 6 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Alcohol Addiction 12 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 1264 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 171 99.46 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 261 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 528 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 218 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 123 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Death 112 97.96 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 49 96.08 Very High Very High Very High
Neurodegenerative Disease 39 81.68 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In both brain regions, levels of alpha-synuclein were elevated for as long as 2 weeks after treatment cessation.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of alpha-synuclein in brain
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2005 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15901780 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.88
In contrast, levels of alpha-synuclein protein, as assessed by Western blotting, were significantly increased in the amygdala and striatum/accumbens (but not in the mesencephalon) of morphine-withdrawn mice.
Positive_regulation (increased) of alpha-synuclein protein in mesencephalon associated with amygdala and morphine
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2005 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15901780 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.88
The levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA remained unchanged in all brain regions examined (the striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area). alpha-Synuclein mRNA was up-regulated in the whole blood 48 h after alcohol withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (up-regulated) of alpha-Synuclein mRNA in blood associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, withdrawal, amygdala and alcohol
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18456291 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.91
Control mice showed alpha-synuclein mainly in the periphery of the neuronal soma (Figure 1A) while in treated mice, the amount of alpha-synuclein was increased and it was present both inside and outside the neural soma (Figure 1B), with larger alpha-synuclein accumulations (>6 µm) in 20% of the analyzed ganglia after 3 months treatment (Figure 1C).
Positive_regulation (increased) of alpha-synuclein in neuronal
4) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.04
This technique also showed alpha-synuclein accumulation in DMV neurons when compared to controls (Figure 3D–F).
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in neurons
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.06
Remarkably, ChAT+ neurons from adjacent hypoglossus nuclei showed neither alpha-synuclein accumulations nor GFAP increase (data not shown).
Neg (nor) Positive_regulation (accumulations) of alpha-synuclein in neurons
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.12
Control mice showed alpha-synuclein mainly in the periphery of the neuronal soma (Figure 1A) while in treated mice, the amount of alpha-synuclein was increased and it was present both inside and outside the neural soma (Figure 1B), with larger alpha-synuclein accumulations (>6 µm) in 20% of the analyzed ganglia after 3 months treatment (Figure 1C).
Spec (analyzed) Positive_regulation (accumulations) of alpha-synuclein in neuronal
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.04
The selectivity of neuronal alterations and the appearance of alpha-synuclein accumulation in the SN only at the latest treatment time-point allows us to speculate with the possibility of a direct mechanism responsible for this remarkable pattern of progression.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in neuronal
8) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.14
Our results show that chronic treatment with intragastrically administered rotenone reproduces some of the reported PD pathological features – accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein within ENS, DMV, IML and SN.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein associated with disease and spinal cord
9) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.12
In the SN, we observed an increase in intracellular alpha-synuclein (Figure 4B) together with larger alpha-synuclein accumulations in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) (Figure 4c) similarly to that within DMV and IML.
Positive_regulation (increase) of alpha-synuclein in SNc associated with substantia nigra and spinal cord
10) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.22
In the SN, we observed an increase in intracellular alpha-synuclein (Figure 4B) together with larger alpha-synuclein accumulations in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) (Figure 4c) similarly to that within DMV and IML.
Positive_regulation (accumulations) of alpha-synuclein in SNc associated with substantia nigra and spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.22
We observed an increase in alpha-synuclein and some large alpha-synuclein intracellular inclusions (2% of the analyzed images) in ChAT+ neurons of IML (>7.5 µm) (Figure 2A–C) as well as increased alpha-synuclein staining in the dorsal horn layer I after 1.5 and 3 months treatment (Figure 2G and 2H) when compared to controls.
Positive_regulation (increase) of alpha-synuclein in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn and spinal cord
12) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.37
We did not detect significant differences in the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum (Figure 4E–F), brain tau protein, lipofucsin granules or alpha-synuclein accumulation in other brain areas (e.g. cerebellum, cortex or striatum) (data not shown) between treated and control animals at any time-point, confirming that observed changes in alpha-synuclein accumulation and aggregation are confined within selected pathways of the intestine-cerebral axis.


Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in striatum
13) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.03
In the DMV, 1.5 and 3 months rotenone treatment resulted in increased intracellular alpha-synuclein accumulation inside ChAT+ neurons (Figure 3B) when compared to controls (Figure 3A).
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in neurons
14) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.23
Interestingly, the accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in the DMV and the IML did not result in neuronal death.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in neuronal associated with death and spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.69 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.18
We observed an increase in alpha-synuclein and some large alpha-synuclein intracellular inclusions (2% of the analyzed images) in ChAT+ neurons of IML (>7.5 µm) (Figure 2A–C) as well as increased alpha-synuclein staining in the dorsal horn layer I after 1.5 and 3 months treatment (Figure 2G and 2H) when compared to controls.
Positive_regulation (increase) of alpha-synuclein in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn and spinal cord
16) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.38
We observed alpha-synuclein accumulation, phosphorylation, and inflammatory signs and loss of nigral TH+ neurons in our treated mice after 3 months of the treatment.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in neurons associated with inflammation
17) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2808242 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.27
The high levels of oxidative stress in the SN may be compounded by the presence of increased SNCA in the PDGFb-SNCA transgenics, and this increased oxidative stress may “prime” the cells of the SN in the SNCA overexpressing mice to upregulate glutathione synthesis when provided with additional cysteine precursor, whereas this may be less necessary in cortical cells.
Positive_regulation (increased) of SNCA associated with stress and substantia nigra
18) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2925900 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.26
RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blotting techniques were used to measure alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein levels in the brain and blood. alpha-Synuclein protein levels were elevated by up to 80% in the amygdala of mice withdrawn from alcohol for 24 h or 48 h.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of alpha-Synuclein in blood associated with amygdala and alcohol
19) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18456291 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.77
The accumulation of alpha-synuclein in the amygdala, observed in this study, seems to be a common feature of alcohol and opiate abstinence.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of alpha-synuclein in amygdala associated with opiate, amygdala and alcohol
20) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18456291 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.91

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