INT128415

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Context Info
Confidence 0.64
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 36
Total Number 38
Disease Relevance 11.87
Pain Relevance 3.91

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Agrp) extracellular region (Agrp) Golgi apparatus (Agrp)
Anatomy Link Frequency
hypothalamus 4
arcuate nucleus 4
plasma 3
face 1
body 1
Agrp (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
medulla 137 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 40 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 40 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 25 95.00 High High
agonist 70 93.88 High High
Intracerebroventricular 46 92.68 High High
cocaine 19 92.20 High High
vagus nerve 35 91.20 High High
Nicotine 10 90.80 High High
Cholecystokinin 40 90.64 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 476 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 733 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 521 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Aids-related Complex 5 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 66 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperinsulinism 28 92.96 High High
Insulin Resistance 28 90.28 High High
Anorexia 72 88.64 High High
Targeted Disruption 18 87.84 High High
Metabolic Syndrome 46 78.56 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
This regulatory pattern was unexpected because glucocorticoids increase AGRP, suggesting an alternate hyperphagic mechanism despite partial colocalization of 11 beta-HSD1 and AGRP in arcuate nucleus cells.
Positive_regulation (increase) of AGRP in arcuate nucleus
1) Confidence 0.64 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16763061 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.33
Since adrenalectomy blocked the elevation of AGRP mRNA by fasting and insulin deficiency, elevation of corticosterone would be expected to increase hypothalamic AGRP mRNA, as was indeed observed.
Positive_regulation (increase) of AGRP mRNA
2) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0
However, in one key respect the results reported by Savontaus et al. differed from those in the present paper: adrenalectomy failed to block the effects of fasting on hypothalamic AGRP and NPY, even though corticosterone implants were observed to induce AGRP mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induce) of AGRP mRNA
3) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
In several respects the conclusions from this study are similar to the present study (for example, corticoisterone implants increased hypothalamic AGRP and POMC mRNA, and adrenalectomy blocked the effect of fasting on hypothalamic POMC mRNA).
Positive_regulation (increased) of AGRP
4) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0
On the other hand, blocking the rise in corticosterone by adrenalectomy prevented the reduction in hypothalamic POMC mRNA and the induction of AGRP mRNA, without reversing either the reduced leptin or the reduced adiposity, characteristic of insulin-deficient diabetic mice (Fig. 4A and 4B).
Positive_regulation (induction) of AGRP mRNA associated with diabetes mellitus
5) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
Since adrenalectomy blocked the elevation of AGRP mRNA by fasting and insulin deficiency, elevation of corticosterone would be expected to increase hypothalamic AGRP mRNA, as was indeed observed.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of AGRP mRNA
6) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0
First, we have demonstrated that adrenalectomy can block the elevation of AGRP mRNA and the reduction in POMC mRNA with fasting, consistent with previous findings by Ponsalle et al. concerning NPY [14], and suggesting that increases in corticosterone mediate fasting-induced changes in melanocortin tone.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of AGRP mRNA
7) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
In turn, as with fasting, the reduction of plasma leptin could be the cause of the elevation of hypothalamic AGRP and NPY mRNA, as well as the reduction of hypothalamic POMC mRNA.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of AGRP in plasma
8) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0
Therefore hypothalamic AGRP and POMC mRNAs were both induced by the glucocorticoid implant, whereas the NPY mRNA was not significantly influenced.


Positive_regulation (induced) of AGRP
9) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
Together these results suggest that an elevation of corticosterone is necessary for reduction in melanocortin tone during fasting and with diabetes and is sufficient to induce hypothalamic AGRP mRNA but not to reduce POMC expression.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (induce) of AGRP mRNA associated with diabetes mellitus
10) Confidence 0.56 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
HF (58% fat) diet promoted transient ( approximately 8 wk) hyperphagia and decreased food efficiency in 11 beta-HSD1-/- mice and decreased melanocortin-4 receptor mRNA expression in control but not 11 beta-HSD1-/- mice. 11 beta-HSD1-/- mice showed a HF-mediated up-regulation of the orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AGRP) mRNA in the arcuate nucleus which paralleled the transient HF hyperphagia.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of AGRP in arcuate nucleus associated with hyperphagia
11) Confidence 0.56 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 16763061 Disease Relevance 0.61 Pain Relevance 0.15
This is associated with activation on neurones in the NTS, as well as increased AgRP and decreased POMC mRNA expression in the hypothalamus [92].
Positive_regulation (increased) of AgRP in hypothalamus associated with medulla
12) Confidence 0.52 Published 2007 Journal Nutr Metab (Lond) Section Body Doc Link PMC2018708 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.89
Effects of the plasmid based RNAI protocol against AGRP
Positive_regulation (based) of AGRP
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 2002 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC134599 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.09
Agouti-related peptide (AGRP) gene expression is elevated by fasting and in obesity due to leptin insufficiency [1,2], while reversal of obese phenotypes by adrenalectomy reverses the elevation of AGRP mRNA [3].
Positive_regulation (elevation) of AGRP mRNA associated with obesity
14) Confidence 0.47 Published 2002 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC134599 Disease Relevance 0.69 Pain Relevance 0
However, fasting-induced up-regulation of Npy and Agrp mRNAs was observed, but significantly blunted in the hypothalami of CXCL14?
Positive_regulation (ed up-regulat) of Agrp
15) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2859050 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.16
However, the finding of attenuated induction of Npy and Agrp mRNAs in the hypothalami of fasted CXCL14?
Positive_regulation (induction) of Agrp
16) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2859050 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.05
Five micrograms of total RNA from hypothalamus was subjected to Northern blot analysis, as described previously, to measure POMC, AGRP and NPY mRNA [3-5,9].
Positive_regulation (measure) of AGRP in hypothalamus
17) Confidence 0.41 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0
Finally, elevated plasma corticosterone is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of hypothalamic AGRP mRNA with fasting and diabetes.



Positive_regulation (induction) of AGRP mRNA in plasma associated with diabetes mellitus
18) Confidence 0.38 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.67 Pain Relevance 0
Hypothalamic AGRP mRNA was significantly elevated in sham-operated diabetic (vs. sham-operated euglycemic) mice as expected [5,17] (Fig. 4A).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of AGRP mRNA associated with diabetes mellitus
19) Confidence 0.38 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0
Conversely, corticosterone implants induced both AGRP and POMC mRNA (with a non-significant trend toward induction of NPY mRNA), accompanied by elevated insulin and leptin (with no change in food intake or body weight).


Positive_regulation (induced) of AGRP in body associated with body weight
20) Confidence 0.38 Published 2003 Journal BMC Physiol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC179893 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0

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