INT132317

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Context Info
Confidence 0.49
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 20
Total Number 25
Disease Relevance 21.00
Pain Relevance 3.57

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 6
fat 2
colon 2
pituitary 2
sympathetic nervous system 2
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Serotonin 37 99.94 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 268 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 44 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
sSRI 8 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 15 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 12 92.76 High High
addiction 10 91.84 High High
depression 71 88.72 High High
Neuropeptide 42 88.08 High High
cytokine 179 87.56 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 114 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 93 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 14 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 6 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 176 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Schizophrenia 12 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 282 99.18 Very High Very High Very High
Thyroid Disease 9 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 78 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Ulcers 72 98.78 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The aim of the present study was: 1) to examine the expression of ghrelin and TNF-alpha mRNA in the inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 2) to analyze the effect of treatment with exogenous ghrelin on the healing of trinitrobenze sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats, and 3) to assess the effects of ghrelin treatment on mRNA expression for iNOS and protein expression for COX-2 and PPARalpha in intact colonic mucosa and in that with TNBS-induced colitis.
Spec (examine) Positive_regulation (examine) of Spec (examine) Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with colitis and inflammatory bowel disease
1) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19617644 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.13
The exposure to WRS was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal expression of IL-1beta, ghrelin, PPARgamma, HSP70 and COX-2.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with stress
2) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 20224150 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.22
These scientists concluded that short sleep deprivation in young, healthy males was associated with decreased leptin levels and increased ghrelin levels, with subsequent increased hunger and appetite [124].


Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin associated with sleep disorders
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 2005 Journal J Int Soc Sports Nutr Section Body Doc Link PMC2129146 Disease Relevance 1.34 Pain Relevance 0
Regarding antipsychotic treatment for example, it was reported that olanzapine would increase plasma ghrelin levels in patients with schizophrenia [59] and that acute administration of clozapin increases circulating plasma ghrelin levels in rats [58].
Positive_regulation (increase) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in plasma associated with schizophrenia
4) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.07
However, in addition to stimulating GH secretion, ghrelin possesses several other endocrine and extraendocrine biological activities that are explained by the widespread distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a expression.
Positive_regulation (distribution) of Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin
5) Confidence 0.45 Published 2005 Journal J. Endocrinol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 16370568 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0.13
We conclude that 1) patients with UC show an increased mucosal expression of mRNA for ghrelin in the colonic mucosa which could trigger protective response in inflamed colon; and 2) exogenous ghrelin accelerates healing of colonic lesions in animal model of ulcerative colitis via increased release of NO and PGE(2) due to an increase in iNOS and COX-2 expression and stimulation of sensory neuropeptides such as CGRP released from sensory afferent endings.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin in colon associated with inflammatory bowel disease and neuropeptide
6) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19617644 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.19
Sleep deprivation also leads to changes in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, to reduced levels of leptin and to increased levels of ghrelin in the general circulation [13].
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin in sympathetic nervous system associated with sleep disorders
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Endocrinology Section Body Doc Link PMC2842885 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0
For example, tryptophan – the precursor molecule of serotonin – enhances ghrelin expression and secretion [115], antidepressant therapy with an SSRI may attenuate hypothalamic effects of ghrelin [8], and antidepressant therapy with mirtazapine seems to decrease ghrelin levels [83].
Positive_regulation (enhances) of Gene_expression (expression) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant, ssri and serotonin
8) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.42
Using models identical to those described above, we showed that increasing circulating ghrelin levels by calorie restricting mice for ten days or by acute s.c. administration of ghrelin to ad??
Positive_regulation (circulating) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin
9) Confidence 0.39 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.14
Using models identical to those described above, we showed that increasing circulating ghrelin levels by calorie restricting mice for ten days or by acute s.c. administration of ghrelin to ad??
Positive_regulation (increasing) of Gene_expression (levels) of ghrelin
10) Confidence 0.39 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915752 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.14
Therefore, we recruited healthy subjects without peptic ulcers in order to minimize the confounding factors and found that ghrelin production increased after H. pylori eradication, independent of inflammation.
Neg (independent) Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (production) of ghrelin associated with inflammation and ulcers
11) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 0.16
Transgenic overexpression of CNS and gastric ghrelin causes hyperphagia, increases energy expenditure, and decreases sensitivity to insulin and leptin in mice [170].
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of ghrelin associated with hyperphagia and targeted disruption
12) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.03
Other studies have supported this hypothesis by demonstrating that eradicating H. pylori increases ghrelin production (11, 12).
Positive_regulation (increases) of Gene_expression (production) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 1.33 Pain Relevance 0.23
Isomoto et al. showed that greater inflammation in an H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa resulted in less ghrelin production (18).
Positive_regulation (resulted) of Gene_expression (production) of ghrelin associated with inflammation
14) Confidence 0.31 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0.17
Long-term surveillance of ghrelin and GHS receptor-deficient and ghrelin-overexpressing transgenic animals will be needed to assess whether prolonged changes in ghrelin availability influence immune function or inflammatory disease.

5.11.

Positive_regulation (overexpressing) of Gene_expression (overexpressing) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption, inflammation and disease
15) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 1.86 Pain Relevance 0.32
Long-term surveillance of ghrelin and GHS receptor-deficient and ghrelin-overexpressing transgenic animals will be needed to assess whether prolonged changes in ghrelin availability influence immune function or inflammatory disease.

5.11.

Positive_regulation (overexpressing) of Gene_expression (overexpressing) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption, inflammation and disease
16) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0.33
Transgenic mice with overexpression of the des-acyl ghrelin gene exhibited a decrease in body weight, food intake, and fat mass weight accompanied by moderately decreased linear growth compared with their nontransgenic littermates [6].
Positive_regulation (overexpression) of Gene_expression (overexpression) of ghrelin in fat associated with targeted disruption and body weight
17) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915652 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0
At a higher ghrelin dose (3??
Positive_regulation (higher) of Gene_expression (dose) of ghrelin
18) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.08
Long-term surveillance of ghrelin and GHS receptor-deficient and ghrelin-overexpressing transgenic animals will be needed to assess whether prolonged changes in ghrelin availability influence immune function or inflammatory disease.

5.11.

Positive_regulation (overexpressing) of Gene_expression (overexpressing) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption, inflammation and disease
19) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0.35
The plasma active ghrelin level in patients who received eradication drugs did not show a significant change compared with the control group (2.63±6.23 vs. -0.70±9.37, P=0.374).
Positive_regulation (active) of Gene_expression (level) of ghrelin in plasma
20) Confidence 0.22 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Korean Medical Science Section Body Doc Link PMC2811295 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0

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