INT132411

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Context Info
Confidence 0.69
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 25
Total Number 26
Disease Relevance 12.05
Pain Relevance 2.59

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 2
blood 1
plasma 1
taste buds 1
Ghrl (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Endocannabinoid 70 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 16 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 9 99.14 Very High Very High Very High
Cannabinoid 70 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 30 96.66 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 77 95.60 Very High Very High Very High
Ventral tegmentum 72 94.28 High High
Somatostatin 70 93.04 High High
nMDA receptor 6 83.88 Quite High
tolerance 127 79.84 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 387 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 616 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 646 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Liver Failure 10 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Starvation 42 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
Renal Failure 18 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 79 98.08 Very High Very High Very High
Malignant Neoplastic Disease 5 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperphagia 185 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
Eating Disorder 17 97.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
RT-PCR studies demonstrated that ghrelin mRNA is upregulated by over 5-fold at the high estrogen stages of the cycle, proestrus and early estrus over the levels expressed at the low estrogen stage of the cycle, diestrus.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of ghrelin mRNA
1) Confidence 0.69 Published 2006 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 16376425 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.37
In addition, they were observed to have lower serum leptin and elevated ghrelin levels, where leptin is known to act as an appetite suppressant, whereas ghrelin seems to stimulate hunger.25
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin
2) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal Int J Gen Med Section Body Doc Link PMC2990395 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3), ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR), and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin) are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds.
Positive_regulation (activates) of ghrelin in taste buds
3) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
No specific immunocytochemical signal was detected in the ghrelin, GHSR or GOAT null mice with our antibodies raised against these respective proteins, suggesting that the antibodies were indeed specific.
Positive_regulation (detected) of ghrelin
4) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The ability of ghrelin receptor ablation to affect the response to a sour stimulus could potentially be due to a role of ghrelin in controlling cell to cell signaling between TCs and the Type III (‘presynaptic’) cells, which possess the putative sour receptor (PKD2L1).
Positive_regulation (role) of ghrelin
5) Confidence 0.37 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0.20
We found elevated circulating ghrelin in adult Snord116del mice which replicates the human data.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.04
Additionally, we also used ghrelin blocking peptide as an additional control to test the specificity of the anti-ghrelin antibody.
Positive_regulation (used) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.32 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Synchronisation of the GHRH network might be facultative for factors, like ghrelin, which enhance the amplitude and not the frequency of GH pulses [1].
Spec (might) Positive_regulation (facultative) of ghrelin
8) Confidence 0.30 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Collectively, these data suggest that neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and glutamate are required for ghrelin-induced reinforcement, which it has in common with natural as well as chemical reinforcers of the mesolimbic dopamine system.
Positive_regulation (required) of ghrelin associated with dopamine, glutamate and neurotransmitter
9) Confidence 0.30 Published 2011 Journal Addiction Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC3015055 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.79
In Snord116del mice fed ad libitum, levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin were greatly elevated in blood, to the same level seen in wild-type mice after 24 hr starvation.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin in blood associated with starvation
10) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2827556 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0
We postulate that in WT mice ghrelin would increase endocannabinoid synthesis, whose levels are then further amplified by CB1 stimulation, thus leading to further endocannabinoid biosynthesis.
Positive_regulation (increase) of ghrelin associated with endocannabinoid
11) Confidence 0.27 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Ghrelin's effects on AMPK, thought to mediate its orexigenic effects, are now also definitively shown to be CB1-dependent.
Positive_regulation (effects) of Ghrelin
12) Confidence 0.27 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2258435 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.15
A lower concentration of ghrelin (1 nM) had no significant effect (n?
Positive_regulation (concentration) of ghrelin
13) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.26
Human PWS individuals have increased circulating levels of ghrelin, a potent orexigenic peptide, which is thought to contribute to their hyperphagic behavior.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin associated with syndrome
14) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
Increased circulating ghrelin level
Positive_regulation (Increased) of ghrelin
15) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0
Circulating neuropeptide hormones related to appetite regulation were measured in PWS subjects, and while leptin levels were similar to those in non-PWS obese subjects [49], plasma levels of ghrelin were elevated in adults [50]–[52].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin in plasma associated with appetite loss, syndrome, obesity and neuropeptide
16) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.05
Prolonged mealtime and increased circulating ghrelin indicate a defect in meal termination mechanism.
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin
17) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
As shown in Fig. 6G, ghrelin levels in adult Snord116del mice with ad libitum access to food are increased to 2.3±0.3 fold compared to WT level (P<0.002).
Positive_regulation (increased) of ghrelin
18) Confidence 0.25 Published 2008 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2248623 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
In fact, circulating ghrelin levels have been found altered in different clinical situations, like renal failure or hepatic failure [101, 155].
Positive_regulation (circulating) of ghrelin associated with liver failure and renal failure
19) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 1.18 Pain Relevance 0.04
The lean mice were euglycemic; as expected, glucose and insulin levels were elevated both in ob/ob and ghrelin KO ob/ob mice.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of ghrelin associated with targeted disruption and obesity
20) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 1.83 Pain Relevance 0

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