INT13396

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Context Info
Confidence 0.75
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2011
Negated 7
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 125
Total Number 136
Disease Relevance 57.81
Pain Relevance 5.45

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (DMD) cytoskeleton (DMD) nucleus (DMD)
cytoplasm (DMD)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 20
hip 9
spine 8
neck 6
femur 4
DMD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 128 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 8 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
cva 109 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 189 97.08 Very High Very High Very High
transdermal 67 96.32 Very High Very High Very High
spinal inflammation 62 94.72 High High
Pain 150 94.56 High High
Multiple sclerosis 19 94.52 High High
rheumatoid arthritis 143 94.48 High High
fibrosis 475 90.64 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Muscular Dystrophy 3229 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 104 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoporosis 2765 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Calcification 75 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypercalcemia 618 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 407 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Cardiomyopathy 759 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Prostate Cancer 260 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 29 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Stroke 100 99.36 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
For AP and dystrophin expression, mouse eyes were enucleated and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound (Sakura Finetek Inc., Torrance, CA).
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in eyes
1) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2713732 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.09
Gentamycin treatment of mdx mice was able to re-establish around 20% of the normal expression of dystrophin but this was highly variable from animal to animal and human trials using gentamycin have not proven effective.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
2) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0
Our controlled study of exon skipping for DMD clearly shows an increase in the expression of dystrophin in drug-treated muscles compared with the saline-injected contralateral muscle.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle associated with muscular dystrophy
3) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0
It is downregulated as dystrophin begins to be expressed and begins to replace it.
Gene_expression (expressed) of dystrophin
4) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0
Auxiliary techniques such as immunohistochemistry were frequently requested (74%) in order to achieve a more distinct diagnosis, as illustrated by lack of dystrophin expression (Figure 1).
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
5) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2852747 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0.03
Because a negative saline-injected control was not included in the previous study,20 and the background concentration of endogenous dystrophin expression was not taken into account, the relative efficacy of the two compounds for inducing dystrophin-positive fibres cannot be compared directly.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
6) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0
Strong expression of dystrophin was seen in the treated muscle in all patients in the high-dose cohort after subtraction of the signal intensity for the low-level of antibody labelling in the sarcolemma of the saline-injected contralateral muscle (figure 3).
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
7) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Both patients who had the low dose AVI-4658 showed little expression of dystrophin, despite dystrophin being robustly restored in the cultured fibroblasts, ahead of the injection of the antisense AVI-4658.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in fibroblasts
8) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.08
In a recent clinical trial in which exon 51 was targeted, the investigators showed dystrophin expression in the tibialis anterior muscle after one injection of PRO051, a 2L'O-methyl antisense oligonucleotide.20 Although PRO051 and AVI-4658 target the same region of exon 51, we used a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer chemistry, used a longer splice-skipping oligonuceotide, and treated a small intrinsic and relatively non-functional foot muscle, which enabled us to obtain bilateral muscle biopsies that were not available in the PRO051 study.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
9) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
The rationale for this time frame was taken from previous work in mice and in humans.17,20 In the mdx mouse, the same level of dystrophin expression was detected at 4 weeks as was detected at 2 weeks after an intramuscular injection of a 2L'O-methyl antisense oligonucleotide designed to skip dystrophin exon 23.17 Also, in a study of intramuscular injection of a 2L'O-methyl antisense oligonucleotide that targeted exon 51, given to patients with DMD, the skipped products and dystrophin were still detected in muscles that were analysed 4 weeks after intramuscular injection.20 The area immediately below the needle track was exposed and an open biopsy was taken and rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane, according to standard techniques.29 To ensure that all the injection site had been obtained, most of the EDB muscle was removed.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscles associated with muscular dystrophy
10) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Western blot analysis detected increased expression of dystrophin in the AVI-4658-treated muscle of all patients who received the high dose, and the immunoblot detected expression of dystrophin of the expected molecular weight in all patients.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
11) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0
Although PMOs that were designed to skip exon 23 were more efficient than were 2L'O-methyl oligomers after intramuscular injection in mdx mice,22,24 any differences in length among the antisense oligonucleotides might contribute to their efficacy.24 Nevertheless, both studies reported unequivocal expression of dystrophin at similar concentrations.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
12) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
Whether this expression of dystrophin resulted in improved muscle function was not studied.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscle
13) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
Dystrophin expression was evaluated in 40 muscle fibres selected at random on one representative transverse MANDYS 106-stained region per biopsy.
Gene_expression (expression) of Dystrophin in muscle
14) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We recently reported that dystrophin expression of 27% of the concentration in healthy muscle was sufficient to avoid skeletal muscle symptoms,42 but the concentration of truncated dystrophin without exon 51 that is sufficient to provide a clinical benefit is not known.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in skeletal muscle
15) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
In the high-dose group, the mean difference in measurements of the fluorescent intensity of dystrophin expression in all treated muscles was about 17% (range 11–21%) more than that in the contralateral saline-injected muscles (one-sample paired t test p=0·002; figure 4).
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin in muscles
16) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Microdystrophin expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining according to a previously published protocol [30].
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
17) Confidence 0.75 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2713732 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.07
However, the results were not encouraging as the dystrophin expression was limited to the transplanted cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of dystrophin
18) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.04
The determined nucleotide sequence of the amplified product encompassing exons 10 to 20 disclosed that the entire segment corresponding to exons 13 to 18 (810 bp) was absent, a deletion that would be expected to cause the production of a dystrophin protein lacking 270 amino acids from the rod domain.
Gene_expression (production) of dystrophin
19) Confidence 0.75 Published 1996 Journal Neurology Section Abstract Doc Link 8628480 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0
Systemic injection of the ZM2-AON complex restored dystrophin protein synthesis in both skeletal and cardiac muscles of mdx mice, allowing protein localization in up to 40% of muscle fibers.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of dystrophin in muscle fibers
20) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal Gene Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 19907501 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.09

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