INT13397

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 7.96
Pain Relevance 1.08

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (DMD) cytoskeleton (DMD) nucleus (DMD)
cytoplasm (DMD)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spine 4
neck 2
muscle fibers 1
femur 1
DMD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
withdrawal 16 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 2 94.32 High High
imagery 3 92.40 High High
Inflammation 36 91.48 High High
headache 67 86.88 High High
corticosteroid 26 84.88 Quite High
rheumatoid arthritis 60 70.84 Quite High
Infliximab 4 59.80 Quite High
cytokine 15 50.60 Quite High
anticonvulsant 12 48.72 Quite Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Osteoporosis 906 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoporotic Fractures 56 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 71 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 122 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hypercalcemia 184 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Muscular Dystrophy 89 93.20 High High
Inflammatory Bowel Disease 11 91.84 High High
INFLAMMATION 38 91.48 High High
Muscle Disease 1 90.48 High High
Obesity 34 89.20 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We performed immunocytochemical studies of the localization of dystrophin on aneurally cultured non-contracting (AMs) and innervated continuously contracting cross-striated human muscle fibers (ICMs) with fetal rat spinal cord from normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) biopsied muscles.
Localization (localization) of dystrophin in muscle fibers associated with muscular dystrophy and spinal cord
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1668813 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.08
Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies raised against three different dystrophin peptides revealed proper subcellular localization of dystrophin at the sarcolemma of all myofibers, but the intensity of the stain was decreased.
Localization (localization) of dystrophin
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 1991 Journal Rinsho Shinkeigaku Section Abstract Doc Link 1802475 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0
Sarcolemmal colocalisation of dystrophin with other proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (webappendix) suggested that dystrophin interacted with other members of this protein complex and was therefore presumed to be functional.
Localization (colocalisation) of dystrophin
3) Confidence 0.73 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
Sarcolemmal colocalisation of dystrophin with other proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (webappendix) suggested that dystrophin interacted with other members of this protein complex and was therefore presumed to be functional.
Localization (colocalisation) of dystrophin
4) Confidence 0.73 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were done at baseline and were again repeated at each follow up visit.
Localization (repeated) of BMD in neck
5) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936260 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0
This study confirmed the findings of previous reports that alendronate therapy following PTH leads to further increase in BMD and is likely to protect against increased bone resorption following withdrawal of PTH (Lindsay et al 1997; Rittmaster et al 2000; Kurland et al 2004; Lindsay et al 2004).


Localization (increase) of BMD associated with hypercalcemia and withdrawal
6) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936260 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.23
The effect of treatment was dependent on baseline BMD so that it was only patients with a femoral neck BMD below ?
Localization (baseline) of BMD in neck
7) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936260 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
The lumbar spine BMD was increased by 2.1% and 2.9% with femur neck BMD increased by 1.2% and 1.0% in the 5 mg and 10 mg alendronate groups respectively.
Localization (increased) of BMD in femur
8) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936260 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
The women, who had received PTH for the first 12 months of this study and was followed by placebo treatment for a further 12 months, had a significant decrease in BMD at the spine (?
Localization (decrease) of BMD in spine
9) Confidence 0.25 Published 2006 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC1936260 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
An increase or stabilization of BMD is associated with reduction in fracture risk [43], although other measures of bone qualities, particularly changes in bone turnover markers [44], are correlated to changes in fracture risk as well.
Localization (stabilization) of BMD
10) Confidence 0.22 Published 2004 Journal Clin Mol Allergy Section Body Doc Link PMC493281 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
Lumbar spine BMD increased by 2.8% and 5.0% in the 1 mg and 2 mg groups, respectively and decreased by 0.04% in the placebo group (Figure 5).
Localization (increased) of BMD in spine
11) Confidence 0.19 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2684081 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0
Patients pretreated with alendronate, however, showed no change in BMD after 6 months, and then a gradual rise in BMD was observed.
Localization (rise) of BMD
12) Confidence 0.18 Published 2007 Journal Clinical Interventions in Aging Section Body Doc Link PMC2686338 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
-carboxylation of bone glutamic acid residues and secretion of osteocalcin, sustains the lumbar BMD and prevents osteoporotic fractures in patients with osteoporosis.8 Shiota et al.9 showed in a randomized controlled study conducted on 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis that 2 years of treatment with cyclical etidronate (200 mg/day for 2 weeks every 12 weeks) plus alfacalcidol (0.5 µg/day) and calcium lactate (2g/day) was more effective in increasing the lumbar BMD and preventing vertebral fractures than treatment with alfacalcidol and calcium lactate alone.
Localization (secretion) of BMD associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures
13) Confidence 0.13 Published 2005 Journal Yonsei Medical Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC2815806 Disease Relevance 0.66 Pain Relevance 0
Similarly, Atkinson et al. [59] showed that red-clover derived isoflavones (26 mg biochanin A, 16 mg formononetin, 1 mg genistein, and 0.5 mg daidzein) slowed the loss of lumbar spine BMC and BMD.
Localization (loss) of BMD in spine
14) Confidence 0.11 Published 2005 Journal Nutr J Section Body Doc Link PMC554088 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
As a complement to the static measurement of BMD, analyses of biochemical markers of bone turnover are used, because these are useful in predicting future changes in bone mass [16,17].
Localization (measurement) of BMD
15) Confidence 0.10 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2656227 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.26
It is not yet clear at present, though, that such monitoring can predict fracture efficacy, and thus its clinical use is not well defined at this time.32,33 One might consider measuring serum N-terminal P1NP at baseline and following it after 3 months, as this change had a correlation coefficient of 0.65 for predicting the 18-month lumbar spine BMD response.32


Localization (response.32) of BMD in spine
16) Confidence 0.09 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Women's Health Section Body Doc Link PMC2971740 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
Measurement of BMD as a routine test in HIV-infected patients is not recommended.
Localization (Measurement) of BMD associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome or hiv infection
17) Confidence 0.09 Published 2004 Journal International Journal of Medical Sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC1074710 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.05
2.5 SD).Osteoporosis: a value for BMD 2.5 SD or more below the young female adult mean (T-score less than or equal to ?
Localization (value) of BMD associated with osteoporosis
18) Confidence 0.08 Published 2008 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2613968 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0
Measurement of BMD is indicated in individuals who have a high fracture probability, provided that it will influence the management decision.
Localization (Measurement) of BMD
19) Confidence 0.08 Published 2008 Journal Osteoporos Int Section Body Doc Link PMC2613968 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0
In particular, postmenopausal women randomized to placebo may have decreases in BMD while men may not.

2.1.2 The pilot study and nitrate run-in phase

Localization (decreases) of BMD
20) Confidence 0.06 Published 2006 Journal Trials Section Body Doc Link PMC1471803 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.46

General Comments

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