INT135673

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 23
Total Number 23
Disease Relevance 5.45
Pain Relevance 21.45

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (Slc1a3)
Anatomy Link Frequency
astrocyte 4
plasma 2
spinal cord 2
glial cells 1
synaptic cleft 1
Slc1a3 (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate 764 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 121 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Antinociceptive 35 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 27 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 93 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Endep 60 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 108 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic pain 15 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Thermal hyperalgesia 6 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 144 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 27 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 14 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 11 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 24 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 42 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 47 95.80 Very High Very High Very High
Thyroid Disease 4 93.04 High High
Repression 2 86.40 High High
Injury 8 76.96 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Daily intrathecal injection of Ro106-9920 prevented the amitriptyline/morphine-induced NF-kappaB p65 translocation and reversed the amitriptyline/morphine-induced GLAST and GLT-1 upregulation and inhibited the restoration of EAAC1 expression.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GLAST associated with endep, morphine and intrathecal
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 2008 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 18400403 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.68
Regarding glutamate transporters, EAAT1 (GLAST) and EAAT2-2 (Glt1b/EAAT2b) (splice variant of EAAT2/Glt1) were significantly increased at the highest administered MDMA dose in the cortex.
Positive_regulation (increased) of EAAT1 in cortex associated with glutamate
2) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2358913 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.82
The results from the above suggest that the decrease in GLT-1 and GLAST, which was induced by PNSL, mainly occurred in astrocytes on the injured side.


Positive_regulation (induced) of GLAST in astrocytes
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.08
Upregulation of GLT-1 and GLAST in microglia following PSNL
Positive_regulation (Upregulation) of GLAST in microglia
4) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2676254 Disease Relevance 0.31 Pain Relevance 0.07
Amitriptyline upregulates EAAT1 and EAAT2 in neuropathic pain rats.
Positive_regulation (upregulates) of EAAT1 associated with neuropathic pain and endep
5) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Title Doc Link 19772901 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 1.07
They activate the glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), the protein responsible for 90% of glutamate uptake in the mammalian brain.
Positive_regulation (activate) of glutamate transporter in brain associated with glutamate
6) Confidence 0.49 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18644397 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.56
The mechanisms involved may include: (a) inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, (b) prevention of glutamate transporter down-regulation, and even up-regulation of glial GTs GLAST and GLT-1 expression, with (c) attenuation of morphine-evoked EAA release following continuous long-term morphine infusion.
Positive_regulation (up-regulation) of GLAST associated with glutamate, inflammation, morphine and cytokine
7) Confidence 0.45 Published 2006 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 16697108 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 1.76
Co-administration of amitriptyline with morphine attenuated morphine tolerance and up-regulated GLAST and GLT-1 expression.
Positive_regulation (up-regulated) of GLAST associated with tolerance, endep and morphine
8) Confidence 0.45 Published 2006 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 16697108 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.85
Long-term morphine infusion induced antinociceptive tolerance and down-regulation of glutamate transporters (GTs), GLAST, GLT-1, and EAAC1, expression in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GLAST in spinal cord dorsal horn associated with glutamate, dorsal horn, tolerance, antinociceptive, spinal cord and morphine
9) Confidence 0.42 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.61
The synaptic activation of glutamate transporter currents in glial cells has been demonstrated in culture [15,16] and in brain slices [17,18].
Positive_regulation (activation) of glutamate transporter in glial cells associated with glutamate
10) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.66
Daily intrathecal injection of Ro106-9920 prevented the amitriptyline/morphine-induced NF-kappaB p65 translocation and reversed the amitriptyline/morphine-induced GLAST and GLT-1 upregulation and inhibited the restoration of EAAC1 expression.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of GLAST associated with endep, morphine and intrathecal
11) Confidence 0.38 Published 2008 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 18400403 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.68
Increases in stimulus intensity resulted in an increase in evoked glutamate transporter current amplitude to a maximal mean response of 77.7 ± 7.4 pA (n = 14) evoked at 4 to 5 times threshold strength (Fig. 3A, B).
Positive_regulation (increase) of glutamate transporter associated with glutamate
12) Confidence 0.38 Published 2009 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2713213 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
These results show that acute amitriptyline treatment preserved morphine's antinociceptive effect in morphine-tolerant rats; the mechanisms may be involved in inhibition of phospho-PKA and PKC expression, and thus inducing the GLAST and GLT-1 trafficking onto glial cell surface which enhances the EAA uptake from the synaptic cleft and reduces EAA concentration in the spinal CSF.
Positive_regulation (inducing) of GLAST in synaptic cleft associated with antinociceptive, endep and morphine
13) Confidence 0.37 Published 2007 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 17346885 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.54
The capacity of GLT-1 to clear extracellular glutamate suggests that glutamate transporter activators be explored for therapeutic approaches to clinical conditions caused by increased glutamatergic transmission.
Positive_regulation (activators) of glutamate transporter associated with glutamate
14) Confidence 0.35 Published 2008 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 18644397 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.65
The sEPSC rate is elevated at baseline in the opiate tolerant spinal cord slice compared to the opiate naïve slice, and glutamate transporter inhibition eliminates this difference.
Positive_regulation (vated at) of glutamate transporter in spinal cord associated with glutamate, opiate and spinal cord
15) Confidence 0.30 Published 2006 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 16949209 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 1.97
Moreover, we verified the immunocontent of astrocyte glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in hypothyroid rats.
Positive_regulation (activation) of glutamate transporter-1 in astrocyte associated with glutamate
16) Confidence 0.29 Published 2008 Journal Neurotoxicology Section Abstract Doc Link 18845185 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.21
Moreover, we verified the immunocontent of astrocyte glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in hypothyroid rats.
Positive_regulation (activation) of GLAST in astrocyte associated with glutamate
17) Confidence 0.29 Published 2008 Journal Neurotoxicology Section Abstract Doc Link 18845185 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.21
In this review, we will illustrate the expression and distribution of the glutamate transporter in two major pain-related regions: spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG).
Positive_regulation (distribution) of glutamate transporter in spinal cord associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion, pain, glutamate and spinal cord
18) Confidence 0.28 Published 2005 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1274343 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 1.34
On the other hand, the glutamate transporter activator MS-153, which is reported to accelerate glutamate uptake in in vivo and in vitro studies [23-26], had no effect in formalin tests when MS-153 was applied via intrathecal injection, even at the highest dose (1,000 ?
Positive_regulation (activator) of glutamate transporter associated with glutamate and intrathecal
19) Confidence 0.26 Published 2005 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1274343 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 1.03
We suggested that such effect could be mediated by an increased function of astrocyte glutamate transporters (GTs), GLAST and GLT-1.
Positive_regulation (increased) of GLAST in astrocyte associated with glutamate
20) Confidence 0.24 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2798716 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0.35

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