INT137206

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Context Info
Confidence 0.65
First Reported 2005
Last Reported 2011
Negated 4
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 47
Total Number 48
Disease Relevance 33.36
Pain Relevance 6.40

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (TLR2) plasma membrane (TLR2) intracellular (TLR2)
cytoplasm (TLR2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
macrophages 3
monocytes 2
bowel 2
T cells 2
middle ear 1
TLR2 (Homo sapiens)
TLR2 - R753Q (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 555 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 140 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 499 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 353 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 77 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Crohn's disease 2 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 52 97.88 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory response 114 97.46 Very High Very High Very High
psoriasis 57 94.68 High High
Inflammatory mediators 17 91.72 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 144 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 611 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Oral Lichen Planus 6 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Influenza Virus Infection 21 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Hypersensitivity 67 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 626 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 356 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Cold Sores 734 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 39 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Burning Mouth Syndrome 6 99.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In this setting upregulation of TLR2 which occurs mainly with high LPS doses, may provide an additional mechanism to sensitize cells against large microbial challenges.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TLR2
1) Confidence 0.65 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1187924 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.05
Some positive results for TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 were also seen in stromal fibroblasts of the conjunctiva, cornea, and limbus.
Positive_regulation (results) of TLR2 in cornea
2) Confidence 0.63 Published 2007 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2768757 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Our results suggest that the levels of sCD14 and sTLR-2 in UWS were upregulated in OLP and BMS respectively.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of sTLR-2 in UWS associated with oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome
3) Confidence 0.60 Published 2008 Journal Clin. Immunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17916440 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0.08
The lack of increase in TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA, discussed above, is in accordance with another study demonstrating no differences in the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 when mRNA from normal turbinates were compared with samples from patients with chronic sinusitis and/or nasal polyps [3].
Positive_regulation (increase) of TLR2 in nasal associated with rhinitis and sinusitis
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1243240 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.12
The increased expression of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 as a consequence of allergen exposure is in line with a previous report demonstrating an increase of TLR2 protein in chronic middle ear inflammation [26].
Positive_regulation (increase) of TLR2 in middle ear associated with otitis media and inflammation
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1243240 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.11
In addition, an upregulation of TLR2 after LPS stimulation was only observed on non-smokers AM.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TLR2 associated with nicotine addiction
6) Confidence 0.57 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1187924 Disease Relevance 1.01 Pain Relevance 0.03
Pam3Cys upregulated the expression of TLR2 mRNA in monocytes within a 1-hour incubation period only, whereas in alveolar macrophages TLR2 mRNA upregulation was detected after 1 h and then maintained until 24 h (Figure 5A).
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TLR2 mRNA in alveolar macrophages
7) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2817655 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0.03
This situation would be similar to the role of NOD2 in Crohn's disease, in which wild type NOD2, also a member of the NLR family [40], inhibits TLR2 (toll-like receptor-2) activation by peptidoglycan, while mutated NOD2 fails to inhibit TLR2, leading to chronic inflammation in the bowel [41].
Positive_regulation (activation) of TLR2 in bowel associated with inflammation, crohn's disease and disease
8) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2794536 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.22
This situation would be similar to the role of NOD2 in Crohn's disease, in which wild type NOD2, also a member of the NLR family [40], inhibits TLR2 (toll-like receptor-2) activation by peptidoglycan, while mutated NOD2 fails to inhibit TLR2, leading to chronic inflammation in the bowel [41].
Positive_regulation (activation) of toll-like receptor-2 in bowel associated with inflammation, crohn's disease and disease
9) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2794536 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.22
Our findings demonstrated that levels of TLR4 mRNA, but not of TLR2 mRNA, are constitutively increased in PBMCs from patients with BD, regardless of disease activity.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TLR2 mRNA associated with disease
10) Confidence 0.44 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2374472 Disease Relevance 1.35 Pain Relevance 0.10
An increased TLR2 surface expression on human monocytes in response to LPS-stimulation has been described previously [13], whereas on the transcriptional level divergent data have been reported showing either upregulation [14,15], or downregulation [16,17] of TLR2-mRNA depending on timing and dose of stimulation.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of TLR2 in monocytes
11) Confidence 0.44 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1187924 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0.04
Pam3Cys induced TLR2 mRNA expression was increased as early as after 1 h in both cells types, but was maintained for a longer time in bronchoalveolar cells.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TLR2 mRNA
12) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2817655 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
In contrast, induction of macrophage maturation by M-CSF, has been shown to result in unchanged TLR2, increased TLR4 and very low TLR9 mRNA expression levels [40].
Positive_regulation (increased) of TLR2 in macrophage
13) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2817655 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.07
We treated HCE-T cells with ultrapure peptidoglycan (PGN-ECndss, a modified form of peptidoglycan from E. coli) that was reported to specifically act via Nod1 or Nod2 without the activation of TLR2.
Neg (without) Positive_regulation (activation) of TLR2 in T cells
14) Confidence 0.42 Published 2008 Journal Molecular Vision Section Body Doc Link PMC2526096 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
In line with this hypothesis, it has been shown that children of farmers, known to have a decreased risk of developing allergies, expressed higher levels of TLR2 mRNA in blood compared to children of non-farmers.
Positive_regulation (levels) of TLR2 mRNA in blood associated with hypersensitivity
15) Confidence 0.39 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1243240 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.13
This is well in line with the increase of the corresponding protein seen following allergen challenge. mRNA for TLR4 exhibited a similar tendency, however not reaching statistical significance, whereas no seasonal increase was seen for TLR2 mRNA.
Neg (no) Positive_regulation (increase) of TLR2 mRNA
16) Confidence 0.39 Published 2005 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC1243240 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
For example, TLR ligands are able to up- or downregulate TLR mRNA expression depending on dose and time [35-37] In addition, the cell surface level of TLR2 was found to be increased by some cytokines, and decreased by others [38].
Positive_regulation (increased) of TLR2 associated with cytokine
17) Confidence 0.38 Published 2010 Journal Respir Res Section Body Doc Link PMC2939603 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.09
We confirmed our microarrays findings by Real time PCR on selected upregulated genes such as Lactoferrin Lipocalin, S100P, FCGR3A, and TLR2 (Figure 2).
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of TLR2
18) Confidence 0.38 Published 2005 Journal BMC Immunol Section Body Doc Link PMC546205 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.13
and IL-8, MCP-1 and TLR-2 was also increased.
Positive_regulation (increased) of TLR-2
19) Confidence 0.34 Published 2009 Journal Molecular Human Reproduction Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2762373 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Increased TLR4, but not TLR2, expression by PBMCs from BD patients
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (Increased) of TLR2 associated with disease
20) Confidence 0.32 Published 2008 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2374472 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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