INT1395

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 29
Speculated 12
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 537
Total Number 549
Disease Relevance 87.33
Pain Relevance 389.81

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
striatum 32
brain 30
neurons 12
nucleus accumbens 12
pituitary 11
Penk (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 2788 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 484 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 427 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 342 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 228 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 227 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 180 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opioid receptor 170 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
amygdala 170 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
medulla 159 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cold Sores 218 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 111 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 105 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 59 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 30 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure Volume 2 Under Development 7 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stroke 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 138 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoglycemia 12 99.98 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Orchidectomy did not affect basal PENK mRNA levels in the PVN, but reduced PENK mRNA levels in the VMN.
Neg (not) Negative_regulation (reduced) of PENK mRNA in PVN
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2002 Journal J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) Section Abstract Doc Link 12503826 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Daily administration of 140 mumol/kg s.c. of the D-2 antagonist I-sulpiride twice daily for 2 weeks produces a 30% decrease in the content of striatal proenkephalin mRNA and ENK.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of ENK associated with antagonist and enkephalin
2) Confidence 0.59 Published 1987 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 3110407 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.99
It is suggested that pain sensation developing after peripheral nerve lesion may be due to the intraspinal loss of enkephalin rather than to the neuroma formation.
Negative_regulation (loss) of enkephalin in peripheral nerve associated with pain, neuroma and enkephalin
3) Confidence 0.59 Published 1985 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2412640 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.70
Enkephalin levels decrease in rat striatum during morphine abstinence.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of Enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin and morphine
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 1979 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 575096 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.89
No decrease in enkephalin levels was found 12 and 24 h after a single dose of 20 mg/kg morphine.
Neg (No) Negative_regulation (decrease) of enkephalin associated with enkephalin and morphine
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 1979 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 575096 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.67
Decreases in preproenkephalin mRNA are due to a decline in the number of neurons that appear to express this gene.
Negative_regulation (Decreases) of preproenkephalin mRNA in neurons
6) Confidence 0.59 Published 1988 Journal J. Comp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 3417907 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.35
While cold stress slightly decreased enkephalin levels, a more severe stress (wetting and cold) increased enkephalin levels by 95%.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of enkephalin associated with stress and enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.59 Published 1990 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 2359494 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.65
In vitro superfusion of GABA (100 microM) produced a approximately equal to 63% decrease in IR-Met-enkephalin released from striatal slices in both saline and acute PTZ-treated rats.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of enkephalin associated with gaba and enkephalin
8) Confidence 0.59 Published 1985 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 4075166 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.86
Enkephalin mRNA levels were also decreased in the striatum, matched by parallel reductions in Met-enkephalin immunoreactivity.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Enkephalin mRNA in striatum associated with enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.59 Published 1996 Journal Eur. J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8743739 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.21
Repeated administration of the antimanic drug lithium (4 mEq/kg/day for 2, 4 or 6 days, i.p.) to rats produced a progressive decline and eventual depletion of dynorphin-A (1-8) (DYN) concentration whereas Met5-enkephalin (ENK) was only marginally decreased in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Met5-enkephalin in pituitary associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
10) Confidence 0.59 Published 1987 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2891076 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
Repeated administration of the antimanic drug lithium (4 mEq/kg/day for 2, 4 or 6 days, i.p.) to rats produced a progressive decline and eventual depletion of dynorphin-A (1-8) (DYN) concentration whereas Met5-enkephalin (ENK) was only marginally decreased in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary (NIL).
Negative_regulation (decreased) of ENK in pituitary associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.59 Published 1987 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 2891076 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
Clozapine decreases enkephalin mRNA in rat striatum.
Negative_regulation (decreases) of enkephalin mRNA in striatum associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.59 Published 1992 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Title Doc Link 1635659 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.38
We always found an initial IR-Met-enkephalin decrease during the postictal depression content, followed by a reduction in IR-Leu-enkephalin and IR-octapeptide tissular concentration.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of IR-Met-enkephalin associated with depression and enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.59 Published 1995 Journal Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 7553333 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.77
In contrast, pENK mRNA levels are decreased in the VMH of morphine-exposed, OVX females and increased in EB-treated females.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of pENK mRNA in VMH associated with morphine
14) Confidence 0.59 Published 2004 Journal J. Pept. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15140157 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.61
The results in striatum suggest that reserpine increases enkephalin synthesis by removing a tonic dopaminergic inhibition: those in adrenal medulla indicate that reserpine causes an accumulation of enkephalins by blocking the release and/or increasing the processing which may trigger a feedback-regulatory mechanism leading to a decrease in proenkephalin mRNA content.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of proenkephalin mRNA in striatum associated with medulla and enkephalin
15) Confidence 0.59 Published 1985 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 4078631 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.90
The same treatment produced, in adrenal medulla, a shift from higher molecular weight to lower molecular weight enkephalin-containing peptides, an increase of enkephalin peptides, and a decrease of proenkephalin mRNA content.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of proenkephalin mRNA in adrenal medulla associated with medulla and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.59 Published 1985 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 4078631 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.16
Methadone at 8 mg/kg but not 4 mg/kg significantly reduced enkephalin levels in the striatum.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of enkephalin in striatum associated with enkephalin and methadone
17) Confidence 0.59 Published 1988 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 3211364 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.22
Proenkephalin protein increased in prefrontal cortex, thymus (32 kDa isoform), nucleus accumbens and spleen (44 kDa isoform), while proenkephalin mRNA levels decreased in brain stem.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of proenkephalin mRNA in spleen associated with nucleus accumbens
18) Confidence 0.59 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16904191 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.26
Inhibition of leucine enkephalin metabolism in rat blood, plasma and tissues in vitro by an aminoboronic acid derivative.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of enkephalin in blood associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.58 Published 1990 Journal Drug Metab. Dispos. Section Title Doc Link 2143133 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
We have previously demonstrated that compared to genetically matched controls, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have decreased proenkephalin mRNA levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the caudal (CVLM) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) of the brainstem.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of proenkephalin mRNA in medulla associated with medulla, rostral ventrolateral medulla and hypertension
20) Confidence 0.58 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8915577 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.36

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