INT141502

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 21
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 25.80
Pain Relevance 8.88

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (CX3CL1) extracellular region (CX3CL1) plasma membrane (CX3CL1)
cytoplasm (CX3CL1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 2
monocyte 2
coronary artery 1
endothelial cells 1
heart 1
CX3CL1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Chronic pancreatitis 29 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Angina 15 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
chemokine 349 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 624 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 158 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 13 93.80 High High
Pain 6 92.00 High High
Neuritis 5 90.40 High High
antagonist 23 89.08 High High
imagery 10 68.72 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Adhesions 199 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Artery Disease 675 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 375 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Pulmonary Disease 99 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperlipidemia 315 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 29 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 3 Under Development 15 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Cardiovascular Disease 45 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 75 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetic Nephropathy 75 99.24 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In contrast, the protein levels of both CX3CR1 and fractalkine were upregulated.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of fractalkine
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 2.02 Pain Relevance 1.69
Lately, fractalkine/CX3CL1 is reported to be a membrane-spanning adhesion molecule that can be cleaved from the cell surface to produce a soluble chemoattractant.
Positive_regulation (cleaved) of fractalkine associated with adhesions
2) Confidence 0.42 Published 2007 Journal J. Gastroenterol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17238032 Disease Relevance 1.37 Pain Relevance 1.11
Previous studies reported that soluble fractalkine was increased in CHD patients as compared to controls, and that membrane-bound fractalkine was increased in human carotid arteries and in animal models.37,38 In another study serum fractalkine levels were determined:22 These data showed that patients with unstable angina (1,199 ± 112 pg/mL) had enhanced fractalkine levels as compared with control levels (423 ± 25 pg/mL) and that six-month atorvastatin therapy, but not simvastatin therapy, greatly reduced the fractalkine levels in the investigated patients (587 ± 89 pg/mL).
Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine associated with angina and coronary artery disease
3) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.15 Pain Relevance 0.18
Even in an elevated inflammatory state caused by postprandial hyperlipemia, no significant increase in fractalkine serum levels was found in the two patient groups compared to control subjects.
Neg (no) Positive_regulation (increase) of fractalkine associated with inflammation and hyperlipidemia
4) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.83 Pain Relevance 0.33
Previous studies reported that soluble fractalkine was increased in CHD patients as compared to controls, and that membrane-bound fractalkine was increased in human carotid arteries and in animal models.37,38 In another study serum fractalkine levels were determined:22 These data showed that patients with unstable angina (1,199 ± 112 pg/mL) had enhanced fractalkine levels as compared with control levels (423 ± 25 pg/mL) and that six-month atorvastatin therapy, but not simvastatin therapy, greatly reduced the fractalkine levels in the investigated patients (587 ± 89 pg/mL).
Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine associated with angina and coronary artery disease
5) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0.20
Cytokines and chemokines may contribute to regulate atherosclerosis-related pathways in diabetes or its associated diseases.26,27 However, little is known about the expression of fractalkine and its receptor in diabetes, although the mRNA of fractalkine and its receptor were upregulated in diabetic rats in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy.28
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of fractalkine associated with chemokine, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, disease, diabetic nephropathy and cytokine
6) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.44 Pain Relevance 0.13
For example, increased fractalkine levels have been reported in patients after cardiac allograft rejection.
Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine
7) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.28
Previous studies reported that soluble fractalkine was increased in CHD patients as compared to controls, and that membrane-bound fractalkine was increased in human carotid arteries and in animal models.37,38 In another study serum fractalkine levels were determined:22 These data showed that patients with unstable angina (1,199 ± 112 pg/mL) had enhanced fractalkine levels as compared with control levels (423 ± 25 pg/mL) and that six-month atorvastatin therapy, but not simvastatin therapy, greatly reduced the fractalkine levels in the investigated patients (587 ± 89 pg/mL).
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of fractalkine associated with angina and coronary artery disease
8) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.98 Pain Relevance 0.10
We found that fractalkine levels in CHD and diabetic patients after rehabilitation were comparable to those in control subjects and that the postprandial fractalkine levels were not significantly increased.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine associated with coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus
9) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.41 Pain Relevance 0.15
Upregulated fractalkine and CX3CR1 levels were present in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease in rats.28 The aforementioned data suggest that fractalkine and CX3CR1 have an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy, functioning as an arrest chemokine in monocyte/macrophage adhesion before migration into the kidney.
Positive_regulation (Upregulated) of fractalkine in kidney associated with chemokine, adhesions and diabetic nephropathy
10) Confidence 0.32 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.21
, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)/CCL2, Interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 and Fractalkine/CX3CL1 to be elevated intrathecally, thereby allowing these cytokines to be used as diagnostic tools [5–9].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of Fractalkine in monocyte associated with cytokine
11) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2896663 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.71
, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1)/CCL2, Interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 and Fractalkine/CX3CL1 to be elevated intrathecally, thereby allowing these cytokines to be used as diagnostic tools [5–9].
Positive_regulation (elevated) of CX3CL1 in monocyte associated with cytokine
12) Confidence 0.26 Published 2010 Journal Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Section Body Doc Link PMC2896663 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.71
Similarly to other studies we were not able to show any significant correlation between fractalkine levels and other classical risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as lipid metabolism (HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG), age, BMI, or diabetes.22,23 In our study, fractalkine serum levels were not significantly elevated in patients who received CABG surgery within two weeks before attending rehabilitation.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (elevated) of fractalkine associated with diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, obesity and disorder of lipid metabolism
13) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.29
receptors and interleukin receptors), and chemokine-related genes (ie, fractalkine/CX3CL1) were significantly increased in COPD patients (Ning et al 2004).
Positive_regulation (increased) of CX3CL1 associated with chemokine and pulmonary disease
14) Confidence 0.22 Published 2008 Journal International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2629979 Disease Relevance 1.38 Pain Relevance 0.49
Fractalkine levels have only been rarely determined in patients; however, it has been shown that Alzheimer patients express enhanced fractalkine levels, correlating with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.20 Another study also reported that fractalkine levels are enhanced in Wegener’s granulomatosis.21 In patients with coronary artery disease fractalkine plasma levels were enhanced and then reduced after statin therapy.22 When CX3CR1 genotypes were analyzed in patients with acute coronary syndromes and healthy controls, CX3CR1-I249 heterozygosity was associated with a markedly reduced risk of acute coronary events, independent of established coronary risk factors such as smoking or diabetes.23,24
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of fractalkine in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, nicotine addiction, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease
15) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.17
However, the cited data indicate that fractalkine levels are enhanced in CHD patients.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of fractalkine associated with coronary artery disease
16) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.17
Fractalkine levels have only been rarely determined in patients; however, it has been shown that Alzheimer patients express enhanced fractalkine levels, correlating with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.20 Another study also reported that fractalkine levels are enhanced in Wegener’s granulomatosis.21 In patients with coronary artery disease fractalkine plasma levels were enhanced and then reduced after statin therapy.22 When CX3CR1 genotypes were analyzed in patients with acute coronary syndromes and healthy controls, CX3CR1-I249 heterozygosity was associated with a markedly reduced risk of acute coronary events, independent of established coronary risk factors such as smoking or diabetes.23,24
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of fractalkine in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, nicotine addiction, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease
17) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.15
Serum fractalkine levels are increased in patients with CHD during the acute inflammatory state of the disease, such as acute myocardial infarction or acute heart failure.22,47 After the acute phase of a cardiovascular inflammatory disease optimized medical treatment, such as that given during rehabilitation, may decrease the inflammatory status, as shown by the similar serum fractalkine levels in patients and healthy controls in this study.


Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine in heart associated with coronary artery disease, inflammation, disease and myocardial infarction
18) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.77 Pain Relevance 0.32
Postprandial hyperlipemia reduced the fractalkine levels in control subjects and in vessel wall cells in vitro, whereas postprandial hyperlipemia did not result in significantly different fractalkine levels in diabetic and CHF patients according to ANOVA.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (result) of fractalkine associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia
19) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.48 Pain Relevance 0.20
In addition, a CHD subgroup of patients suffering from multivessel disease with either two (496 ± 237 pg/mL) or three (429 ± 215 pg/mL) stenosed coronary arteries did not express significantly increased fractalkine levels after rehabilitation, as compared to patients with only one (507 ± 231 pg/mL) occluded coronary artery (P = 0.575).


Positive_regulation (increased) of fractalkine in coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease and disease
20) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.46 Pain Relevance 0.20

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