INT1429

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1977
Last Reported 2010
Negated 15
Speculated 8
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 308
Total Number 316
Disease Relevance 61.33
Pain Relevance 175.65

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cell death (PDYN) extracellular region (PDYN) plasma membrane (PDYN)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 16
brain 15
plasma 12
nerve 8
spinal 6
PDYN (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 1271 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 646 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 445 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 411 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 177 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 164 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 107 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Kappa opioid receptor 101 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
opiate 61 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 58 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cancer 106 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Natriuresis 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure Volume 2 Under Development 4 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 432 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Epilepsy 18 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 58 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Cv General 4 Under Development 4 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 23 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 25 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 95 99.74 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In this study, we investigated the expression of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene, which encodes the precursor of dynorphin peptides, in human macrophage U-937 cell line.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN in macrophage associated with dynorphin
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16483672 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
In this study, we investigated the expression of prodynorphin (PDYN) gene, which encodes the precursor of dynorphin peptides, in human macrophage U-937 cell line.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin in macrophage associated with dynorphin
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16483672 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
In order to test the role of transcription in LPS-mediated down-regulation of PDYN gene expression in U937 cells, the proximal PDYN gene promoter with a length of either approximately 300 base pairs or approximately 900 base pairs was cloned and inserted upstream of luciferase reporter gene.
Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN gene in proximal
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16483672 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
The expression of prodynorphin gene is down-regulated by activation with lipopolysaccharide in U-937 macrophage cells.
Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin in U-937 associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Title Doc Link 16483672 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.38
PDYN mRNA was expressed at a detectable level, measured with a standard RT-PCR method in U-937 cells, but not in Jurkat and Raji cells, which are human T and B lymphocytes, respectively.
Gene_expression (expressed) of PDYN mRNA in B lymphocytes
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal J. Neuroimmunol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16483672 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
The complexity of PDYN expression and diversity of its protein products may be relevant for diverse levels of plasticity in adaptive responses for the dynorphin system.
Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN associated with dynorphin
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal FASEB J. Section Abstract Doc Link 16014400 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Variations in leu-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity may be related to aberrations of feedback mechanisms, multicentric origins of lesions from chromaffin cells with or without the capacity for leu-enkephalin synthesis, or to a variety of other mechanisms, including defective innervation of hyperplastic and neoplastic chromaffin cells.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of leu-enkephalin in chromaffin cells associated with enkephalin and hyperplasia
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 1983 Journal Am. J. Surg. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 6338750 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.78
We now report pronounced increases of prodynorphin mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in comparison to controls.
Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin mRNA in temporal lobe associated with epilepsy
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 2009 Journal Hippocampus Section Abstract Doc Link 19437412 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.18
Because PDYN is expressed in a broad range of neural and endocrine cell types and is induced by a diverse array of stimuli, our limited survey of potential functional consequences of human-specific regulatory substitutions is unlikely to have identified all such changes.
Gene_expression (expressed) of PDYN in neural
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These genetic associations are supported by physiological associations between PDYN expression and each of the phenotypes [40–42].


Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN
10) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.49
The evidence for positive selection on the functional 68-bp element, and hence for increased PDYN expression in humans, raises the possibility that selection has also acted more recently on the alleles that differ in the number of tandem repeats of the element following the origin of modern humans.
Gene_expression (expression) of PDYN
11) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal PLoS Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC1283535 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.03
Use of the chromogenic p-(p-(dimethylamino)phenylazo) benzyl (AZ) ester in the synthesis of leu-enkephalin.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
12) Confidence 0.77 Published 1981 Journal Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. Section Title Doc Link 7228499 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.30
Solution synthesis of Leu-enkephalin has been achieved using the coloured carboxyl protecting p-(p-(dimethylamino)phenylazo)benzyl moiety throughout the synthesis.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.77 Published 1981 Journal Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 7228499 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
Prodynorphin mRNA expression is increased in the patch vs matrix compartment of the caudate nucleus in suicide subjects.
Gene_expression (expression) of Prodynorphin mRNA in caudate nucleus associated with suicidal behaviour and enkephalin
14) Confidence 0.77 Published 1997 Journal Mol. Psychiatry Section Title Doc Link 9399695 Disease Relevance 0.56 Pain Relevance 0.77
Moreover, the human neostriatum is characterized by a heterogenous expression of the prodynorphin opioid gene: high in the patch, but low in the matrix compartment.
Gene_expression (expression) of prodynorphin opioid gene associated with opioid
15) Confidence 0.77 Published 1997 Journal Mol. Psychiatry Section Abstract Doc Link 9399695 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.84
In order to improve the quality of the NMR data, Leu-enkephalin was synthesized with 15N-labelled uniformly on all amide nitrogens and examined in a viscous solvent medium at low temperature.
Gene_expression (synthesized) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.76 Published 1998 Journal J. Pept. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9680059 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.42
Among them, the p-nitrophenyl esters were subsequently applied to the stepwise synthesis of Leu-enkephalin.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.76 Published 1993 Journal Acta Chem. Scand. Section Abstract Doc Link 8476700 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
When the blood pressure of pithed rabbits was raised by an intravenous infusion of noradrenaline, rather than by electrical stimulation, bremazocine, Leu-enkephalin, and fentanyl failed to produce hypotension.
Neg (failed) Gene_expression (produce) of Leu-enkephalin in blood associated with pressure volume 2 under development, noradrenaline and enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.76 Published 1986 Journal J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 2425160 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.73
This useful property allowed the synthesis of fully protected Leu-enkephalin.
Gene_expression (synthesis) of Leu-enkephalin associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.76 Published 2002 Journal J Comb Chem Section Abstract Doc Link 12005482 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
Leu-enkephalin was detected in dense core vesicles (70--100 nm in diameter) of many nerve fibers in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord, the globus pallidus and the nucleus papabrachialis.
Gene_expression (detected) of Leu-enkephalin in nerve associated with substantia gelatinosa, enkephalin and spinal cord
20) Confidence 0.76 Published 1979 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 460711 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.68

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