INT14306

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 4
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 36
Total Number 37
Disease Relevance 21.66
Pain Relevance 18.51

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Gal) Golgi apparatus (Gal) cytoplasm (Gal)
Anatomy Link Frequency
nerve 5
dorsal horn 4
visceral 2
peripheral nerve 2
locus coeruleus 2
Gal (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 76 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Locus ceruleus 36 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 19 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 64 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral nervous system 3 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 2 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
spinal dorsal horn 3 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 16 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
neuralgia 4 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Renal Failure 38 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Hepatotoxicity 24 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Sciatic Neuropathy 2 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 73 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 118 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Toxicity 6 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic Pain 216 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 12 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 72 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 221 99.60 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We demonstrate that the up-regulation of galanin has no direct effect on basal spinal excitability after nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (regulation) of galanin in nerve associated with nervous system injury
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2001 Journal Neuroreport Section Abstract Doc Link 11711881 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.37
Galanin levels are strongly and persistently increased in the DRG and dorsal horn of the spinal cord as well as in many regions of the central nervous system following nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Galanin in dorsal horn associated with nervous system injury, dorsal horn, central nervous system and spinal cord
2) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.68
Galanin levels in the central nervous system are also upregulated in many disease states and in rodent models of these pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease [11], stroke induced ischemia [11,12] and in multiple sclerosis [13].
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Galanin in central nervous system associated with multiple sclerosis, stroke, ischemia, central nervous system and disease
3) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.73
Axotomy of motor nerves elevates galanin mRNA levels by 6-10 fold in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and nucleus ambiguus [9] and a similar increase is found in the facial nucleus following facial nerve axotomy [10].
Positive_regulation (elevates) of galanin mRNA in facial nerve
4) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2978139 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.65
After transection of the sciatic nerve there is a dramatic increase in both galanin/galanin message-associated peptide-like immunoreactivities and preprogalanin messenger RNA levels in rat and mouse lumbar 4 and 5 dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Positive_regulation (increase) of galanin in neurons associated with ganglion cysts, root ganglion neuron and sciatic nerve
5) Confidence 0.67 Published 1999 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 10362300 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.16
Galanin was upregulated to the same extent after axotomy in NPY-deficient and wild type mice.
Positive_regulation (upregulated) of Galanin
6) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 9802405 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0.24
The neuropeptide galanin is expressed developmentally in the DRG and is rapidly up-regulated 120-fold after peripheral nerve section in the adult.
Positive_regulation (up-regulated) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with neuropeptide
7) Confidence 0.67 Published 2001 Journal Curr Opin Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 11712539 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.13
Activation of galanin receptors by their ligands results in increased feeding, impaired learning, enhanced opiate analgesia and decreased opiate place preference.
Positive_regulation (Activation) of galanin associated with opiate and analgesia
8) Confidence 0.67 Published 2001 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 11145992 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.63
Here, we suggest that upregulation of galanin in DRG neurones following nerve injury results in antinociception via stimulation of galanin GAL1 receptors on dorsal horn neurones, and that the pro-nociceptive effect of galanin is related to presynaptic galanin GAL2 receptors on primary afferents.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of galanin in nerve associated with nociception, antinociception, nervous system injury and dorsal horn
9) Confidence 0.59 Published 2002 Journal Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12368071 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.42
Upregulation of galanin binding sites and GalR1 mRNA levels in the mouse locus coeruleus following chronic morphine treatments and precipitated morphine withdrawal.
Positive_regulation (Upregulation) of galanin in locus coeruleus associated with locus ceruleus, withdrawal and morphine
10) Confidence 0.56 Published 2000 Journal Neuropsychopharmacology Section Title Doc Link 10882839 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 1.04
Endogenous galanin is required for the full expression of central sensitization following peripheral nerve injury.
Positive_regulation (required) of galanin in peripheral nerve associated with neuralgia, nervous system injury, central sensitization and peripheral nerve injury
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 2001 Journal Neuroreport Section Title Doc Link 11711881 Disease Relevance 0.44 Pain Relevance 0.56
Experiments were designed accordingly to evaluate both the preventive as well as curative role of this protein against GalN induced renal toxicity in vivo.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GalN associated with toxicity
12) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal BMC Complement Altern Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1868763 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0
As GalN induced renal failure seems to occur at the end stage of liver cirrhosis, the protective role of the protein against GalN induced renal damages is likely to be an indirect effect probably comes to play via the protection of hepatic disorders.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GalN in liver associated with cirrhosis and renal failure
13) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal BMC Complement Altern Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1868763 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus possesses any preventive as well as curative role against GalN induced renal damages.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GalN
14) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal BMC Complement Altern Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1868763 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0
Reports on the mechanism of GalN induced hepatotoxicity suggests that GalN inhibits the synthesis of RNA as well as protein via reduction of cellular UTP, a substrate for RNA polymerase.
Positive_regulation (induced) of GalN associated with hepatotoxicity
15) Confidence 0.50 Published 2007 Journal BMC Complement Altern Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1868763 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
Here, we suggest that upregulation of galanin in DRG neurones following nerve injury results in antinociception via stimulation of galanin GAL1 receptors on dorsal horn neurones, and that the pro-nociceptive effect of galanin is related to presynaptic galanin GAL2 receptors on primary afferents.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of galanin in nerve associated with nociception, antinociception, nervous system injury and dorsal horn
16) Confidence 0.49 Published 2002 Journal Trends Pharmacol. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 12368071 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.43
Marked sex differences in lean control mice were found at 3 weeks of age in pancreatic Met-enkephalin-LI and galanin-LI (with two- to threefold higher content in males).
Positive_regulation (pancreatic) of galanin associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.49 Published 1990 Journal Metab. Clin. Exp. Section Abstract Doc Link 1691431 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.35
These results suggest that visceral nociception may upregulate both galanin and CRH gene expression in the hypothalamic and limbic nuclei.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (upregulate) of galanin in visceral associated with nociception
18) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 17335920 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.59
Up-regulation of galanin and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNAs in the key hypothalamic and amygdaloid nuclei in a mouse model of visceral pain.
Positive_regulation (Up-regulation) of galanin in visceral associated with pain and visceral pain
19) Confidence 0.49 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Title Doc Link 17335920 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.71
-galactosidase A was transiently silenced by RNA interference in HK2 and primary human renal epithelial cells and stably silenced in HK2 cells by retroviral transfection with small hairpin RNA (shRNA).
Positive_regulation (silenced) of gal in epithelial cells
20) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal Orphanet J Rare Dis Section Body Doc Link PMC3009617 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0

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