INT143612

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 2002
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 13
Total Number 22
Disease Relevance 2.95
Pain Relevance 6.15

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
inferior 4
Anterior 2
brain 1
autonomic 1
prefrontal 1
AIC (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Anterior cingulate cortex 1791 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 460 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatosensory cortex 53 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
positron emission tomography 90 97.20 Very High Very High Very High
insula 440 91.48 High High
Autonomic response 200 88.12 High High
primary somatosensory cortex 21 77.76 Quite High
imagery 41 59.76 Quite High
cingulotomy 40 55.44 Quite High
Lasting pain 30 51.44 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 20 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Traumatic Stress Disorders 10 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
Cognitive Disorder 371 97.12 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 397 94.36 High High
Epilepsy 10 89.56 High High
Dissociative Disorders 100 89.44 High High
Mydriatic 30 87.36 High High
Urological Neuroanatomy 60 75.36 Quite High
Toxicity 11 62.72 Quite High
Death 2 48.88 Quite Low

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We propose that SI/PPC plays a role in the short-term retention of spatial and intensity aspects of noxious stimuli and that aIC activation during memory trials is consistent with the integration of sensory and cognitive (attention, awareness, salience, and memory) components of pain perception.
Positive_regulation (activation) of aIC associated with pain and cognitive disorder
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2007 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 17460074 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.82
An early PET study in which participants were asked to attend to subjective emotional responses supports this: attention to emotion was associated with activation of both ACC and AIC (Lane et al. 1997).
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC associated with positron emission tomography and anterior cingulate cortex
2) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0.68
Craig (2009) lists a dizzying range of contexts in which AIC activation has been reported in functional neuroimaging studies, before suggesting that the way to reconcile these disparate findings is to posit the AIC as the seat of consciousness itself: the neural correlate of first-person subjective awareness.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC in neural
3) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.21
Anterior midcingulate gyrus, SMA, and bilateral AIC were significantly activated in association with errors, but only AIC was activated when participants signalled awareness of such errors.
Positive_regulation (activated) of AIC in Anterior
4) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
Anterior midcingulate gyrus, SMA, and bilateral AIC were significantly activated in association with errors, but only AIC was activated when participants signalled awareness of such errors.
Positive_regulation (activated) of AIC in Anterior
5) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Co-activation of the AIC and ACC is reported by numerous functional neuroimaging studies of emotional processing (Craig 2009).
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC associated with anterior cingulate cortex
6) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 1.20
Craig also notes that the great majority of studies reporting AIC activation also report activation of ACC.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC associated with anterior cingulate cortex
7) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
In the metaanalysis, interesting differences are visible: pre-response conditions activate predominantly the superior AIC, whereas post-response conditions (errors and negative feedback) seem to activate the AIC to a larger extent with maxima in the inferior AIC (Table 1).
Positive_regulation (activate) of AIC in inferior
8) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Specifically, PD prior to and after aware errors covaried with activity increases in the pMFC, AIC, somatosensory cortex and oculomotor areas, and the concurrent deactivation in the default mode network (DMN) (Fig. 4).
Positive_regulation (increases) of AIC in cortex associated with somatosensory cortex
9) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.05
Uncertainty about the source of an error and the appropriate adjustment has been shown to increase pMFC and AIC activity (Ullsperger et al. 2007).Which post-error adjustments depend on error awareness, and which do not?
Positive_regulation (increase) of AIC
10) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Preparatory pupil diameter predicts increased activation of AIC and salience/control structures (RCZ rostral cingulate zone, S primary sensory cortex, and task control oculomotor structures IPS intraparietal sulcus, FEF frontal eye field) and decreased activation in the default mode network (aMPFC anterior medial prefrontal cortex, and PCC posterior cingulate cortex).
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC in prefrontal
11) Confidence 0.59 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.04
Also a study showed that bilateral AIC and rostral ACC were amongst brain areas showing a significant response to errors on a numerical Stroop-type task, and were also activated by sympathetic arousal, indexed by pupillometry measures taken concurrently with task performance.
Positive_regulation (activated) of AIC in sympathetic associated with anterior cingulate cortex
12) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
The same study found reduced activation in AIC (and ACC) bilaterally in the same participants during the same experimental condition.
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC associated with anterior cingulate cortex
13) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.45
Bilateral AIC and right ACC were amongst the brain areas activated in the non-painful condition, and bilateral AIC and bilateral ACC in the painful condition.
Positive_regulation (activated) of AIC in brain associated with pain and anterior cingulate cortex
14) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 1.08
Here, the AIC and pMFC are again coactivated on errors.
Positive_regulation (coactivated) of AIC
15) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.08
In the metaanalysis, interesting differences are visible: pre-response conditions activate predominantly the superior AIC, whereas post-response conditions (errors and negative feedback) seem to activate the AIC to a larger extent with maxima in the inferior AIC (Table 1).
Positive_regulation (activate) of AIC in inferior
16) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Importantly, in this study, these PD changes indexing autonomic arousal were correlated with activity in both the AIC and the pMFC (amongst other brain areas) by means of an fMRI conjunction analysis, suggesting a possible link between AIC activation and autonomic activity during error processing.
Positive_regulation (activity) of AIC in autonomic
17) Confidence 0.43 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.05
It is reasonable to suppose that mechanisms supporting self-awareness may also be important for understanding the mental states of others, and a number of studies have reported joint activation of AIC and ACC by tasks designed to elicit empathic responses (Lieberman 2007).
Positive_regulation (activation) of AIC in joint associated with anterior cingulate cortex
18) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886906 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.25
It appears that more superior AIC activity occurs in situations when risks and failures can still be avoided, whereas the inferior AIC is involved when a negative event (error, increase in risk) has already occurred.
Positive_regulation (occurs) of AIC in inferior
19) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.11
In the metaanalysis, interesting differences are visible: pre-response conditions activate predominantly the superior AIC, whereas post-response conditions (errors and negative feedback) seem to activate the AIC to a larger extent with maxima in the inferior AIC (Table 1).
Positive_regulation (activate) of AIC in inferior
20) Confidence 0.40 Published 2010 Journal Brain Struct Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2886909 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06

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