INT14513

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 52
Total Number 79
Disease Relevance 29.26
Pain Relevance 11.63

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ghrl) extracellular region (Ghrl) cytoplasm (Ghrl)
Anatomy Link Frequency
stomach 13
plasma 3
pituitary 3
brain 2
sensory nerves 2
Ghrl (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
medulla 117 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 32 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
antidepressant 32 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 27 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 616 99.50 Very High Very High Very High
Intracerebroventricular 14 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
spastic colon 16 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
cytokine 241 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 20 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
sSRI 63 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 506 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 459 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Eating Disorder 4 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 484 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Functional Bowel Disorder 4 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
Repression 162 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 125 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 174 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Necrosis 62 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 75 98.12 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
For example, intestinal mucosal L-cell-derived oxyntomodulin, a satiety signal, acts via the hypothalamus to inhibit vagally driven gastric secretion of acylghrelin, thus quelling hunger [363].
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in hypothalamus
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2925380 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.08
Brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone regulates food intake through vagal-dependent cholinergic stimulation of ghrelin secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in Brainstem associated with medulla
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Endocrinology Section Title Doc Link 16959836 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.35
In conclusion, ghrelin stimulates pancreatic secretion via a vagal cholinergic efferent pathway.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16469825 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
We hypothesized that ghrelin released from the stomach acts as an endocrine substance and stimulates brain stem vagovagal circuitry to evoke pancreatic secretion.
Localization (released) of ghrelin in brain stem
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2006 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16469825 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
Ghrelin, a powerful orexigenic peptide released from the gut, stimulates feeding when injected centrally and has thus far been implicated in regulation of metabolic, rather than hedonic, feeding behavior.
Localization (released) of Ghrelin in gut
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 2005 Journal Peptides Section Abstract Doc Link 16137788 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
The data indicated that aging-associated anorexia is caused by an increase in plasma leptin, which results from disturbed reactivity of ghrelin in the hypothalamus and regulation of ghrelin secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in hypothalamus associated with appetite loss and aging
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0.12
In this section, the effects of rikkunshito are introduced, with main focus on the action of rikkunshito as an enhancer of ghrelin secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 1.44 Pain Relevance 0.25
Dysregulation of ghrelin secretion and ghrelin resistance in the appetite control system occurred in aged mice and that rikkunshito ameliorated aging-anorexia via inhibition of PDE3.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss and aging
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.90 Pain Relevance 0.03
In conclusion, ghrelin given into the duodenum stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in duodenum
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 2007 Journal Regul. Pept. Section Abstract Doc Link 17462749 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
In addition to promoting growth-hormone release and appetite, ghrelin also affects gastric motility and secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
10) Confidence 0.74 Published 2005 Journal Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16036524 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.29
Circulating ghrelin levels negatively correlate with BMI, meaning increased ghrelin secretion during fasting, malnutrition, cachexia, and in anorexia nervosa and reduced ghrelin secretion in obesity.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss, obesity and eating disorder
11) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.09 Pain Relevance 0.93
Obesity and fasting are the two main situations in which ghrelin secretion is mostly modified.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with obesity
12) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.27 Pain Relevance 1.09
Circulating ghrelin levels negatively correlate with BMI, meaning increased ghrelin secretion during fasting, malnutrition, cachexia, and in anorexia nervosa and reduced ghrelin secretion in obesity.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with appetite loss, obesity and eating disorder
13) Confidence 0.73 Published 2010 Journal Med. Hypotheses Section Abstract Doc Link 19883981 Disease Relevance 2.03 Pain Relevance 0.88
The aim of the present study was (1) to investigate the effect of acylated ghrelin on the formation and healing of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ischemia-reperfusion and gastric mucosal blood flow in rats; (2) to analyse the effects of the deactivation of afferent sensory nerves with capsaicin and of the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-synthase by NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) on the ghrelin-induced protection; (3) to examine the influence of ghrelin on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation and on release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (4) to assess the effect of ghrelin on the mRNA expression of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and angiogenesis related proteins such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and (5) to determine the effect of ischemia/reperfusion on the gastric mucosa expression of ghrelin in rats without and with administration of exogenous hormone.
Localization (release) of ghrelin in sensory nerves associated with calcitonin gene related peptide, necrosis, qutenza, hypoxia, cancer, ischemia and cytokine
14) Confidence 0.73 Published 2006 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16581065 Disease Relevance 0.75 Pain Relevance 0.39
We studied the effects of peripheral (i.p.) and central (i.c.v.) administration of ghrelin on gastric secretion and gastric mucosal lesions induced by 3 h of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) with or without inhibition of ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue type 1a receptor (GHS-R1a) by using ghrelin antagonist, d-Lys(3)-GHRP-6; blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (indomethacin, SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethylpyrazole]) and COX-2 (rofecoxib); and bilateral vagotomy or capsaicin denervation.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with qutenza, antagonist and ischemia
15) Confidence 0.73 Published 2006 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 16868036 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.22
We compared the effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ghrelin on gastric secretion and gastric lesions induced in rats by 75% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without suppression of nitric oxide (NO)-synthase or functional ablation of afferent sensory nerves by capsaicin.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in sensory nerves associated with stress, qutenza and intracerebroventricular
16) Confidence 0.73 Published 2005 Journal Inflammopharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 16259727 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.17
Ghrelin is secreted in the gastrointestinal tract and correlates inversely with the body mass index and fat percentage [99].
Localization (secreted) of Ghrelin in body associated with obesity
17) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.40
These findings suggest that the mechanism of improvement of anorexia by rikkunshito may involve ghrelin receptor activation via stimulation of ghrelin secretion from the stomach into the plasma.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin in plasma associated with appetite loss
18) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.16
Heptamethoxyflavone, an active ingredient flavonoid in rikkunshito, has been shown to have a pivotal effect on stimulation of ghrelin secretion.
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin
19) Confidence 0.68 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2915625 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.13
For example, tryptophan – the precursor molecule of serotonin – enhances ghrelin expression and secretion [115], antidepressant therapy with an SSRI may attenuate hypothalamic effects of ghrelin [8], and antidepressant therapy with mirtazapine seems to decrease ghrelin levels [83].
Localization (secretion) of ghrelin associated with antidepressant, ssri and serotonin
20) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal Current Neuropharmacology Section Body Doc Link PMC2687935 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.45

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