INT145875

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 28
Total Number 29
Disease Relevance 6.81
Pain Relevance 10.19

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Grm2) plasma membrane (Grm2) intracellular (Grm2)
signal transducer activity (Grm2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
dorsal root ganglion 4
spinal cord 3
neurons 2
forebrain 1
dorsal horn 1
Grm2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Glutamate receptor 162 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 20 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 170 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Dorsal horn 136 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
dorsal root ganglion 14 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 6 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropathic pain 120 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 117 98.28 Very High Very High Very High
Antihyperalgesic 8 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
analgesia 163 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropathic Pain 126 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 14 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 40 97.76 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 212 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Hypersensitivity 26 94.00 High High
Anxiety Disorder 209 92.68 High High
Hyperalgesia 64 91.28 High High
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 11 87.84 High High
Inflammatory Pain 38 86.32 High High
Manic Depressive Disorder 3 77.36 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Recent studies have indicated that metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR5, mGluR2/3 and mGluR7 are present in the regions of central nervous system important for nociceptive transmission, but their involvement in neuropathic pain has not been well established.
Gene_expression (present) of mGluR2 in central nervous system associated with nociception, glutamate receptor, neuropathic pain and central nervous system
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 2008 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 18442882 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 1.00
For example, recently, the expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 gene in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion was found to be upregulated after systemic administration of MS-275 or SAHA, and this upregulation likely mediates the inhibitory effect of these HDACIs on formalin-induced hyperalgesia [27].
Gene_expression (expression) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 gene in dorsal root ganglion associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion, hyperalgesia, glutamate receptor and spinal cord
2) Confidence 0.29 Published 2010 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC2942827 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 0.85
This suggests that the expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 is differentially regulated and that unraveling the nature of this difference may lead to the identification of new targets for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 associated with neuropathic pain
3) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.86
The expression of mGlu2/3 was clearly down-regulated after 4 days of CAPE treatment compared to vehicle (Fig. 4A–B).
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
4) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Consistent with these studies, we have shown that L-acetylcarnitine (LAC), a drug clinically effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain of various origins [6-9], up-regulates the expression of mGlu2 in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord [10,11].
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 in spinal cord associated with dorsal horn, neuropathic pain and spinal cord
5) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.90
Interestingly, LAC selectively enhances the expression of mGlu2 receptors and has no effect on the expression of mGlu3 receptors [10,15], although these two receptor subtypes are highly homologous and share similar functions in the CNS [16].
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
6) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.92
B regulates the constitutive expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 in DRG cultures.
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
7) Confidence 0.19 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Although the basal expression of both mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA was regulated by NF-?
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
8) Confidence 0.17 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
We first examined the effect of CAPE on the expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNAs at different time points.
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
9) Confidence 0.17 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
We then examined the effect of CAPE on the expression of mGlu2/3 protein at 4 days.
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
10) Confidence 0.17 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
mGlu2 mRNA expression has been shown to be increased by LAC both in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and in the DRG (Chiechio et al., 2002, and this study).
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 mRNA in spinal cord associated with dorsal horn and spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
B activation regulates the constitutive expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3.


Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
12) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These results confirm our in vivo studies in which we showed that LAC selectively induces mGlu2 mRNA expression in the rat dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the DRG without affecting mGlu3 levels [10].
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 mRNA in dorsal horn associated with dorsal horn and spinal cord
13) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
In order to quantify the changes in mGlu2/3 expression, we performed in-cell Western analysis, and found that addition of CAPE significantly reduced the expression of mGlu2/3 protein relative to vehicle-treated cultures (Fig. 4C).
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
14) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We now report that LAC-induced upregulation of mGlu2 expression in DRG cultures involves transcriptional activation mediated by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 in DRG
15) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.35
To examine the nature of this effect, we measured the transcripts of mGlu2 and mGlu3 by real-time PCR.
Gene_expression (transcripts) of mGlu2
16) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
Taken together, these results demonstrate that expression of mGlu2 and mGlu3 mRNA is regulated by the NF-?
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
17) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Abstract Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.21
In-cell Western assays were used to quantify mGlu2/3 and MAP-2 levels in plated fixed DRG cultures.
Gene_expression (levels) of mGlu2
18) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
B pathway in the search for mechanisms that account for the selective effect of LAC on mGlu2 expression.
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2
19) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.20
LAC up-regulates the expression of mGlu2/3 protein in cultured DRG neurons [15].
Gene_expression (expression) of mGlu2 in neurons
20) Confidence 0.15 Published 2006 Journal Mol Pain Section Body Doc Link PMC1550235 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05

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