INT149091

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Context Info
Confidence 0.76
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2011
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 42
Total Number 45
Disease Relevance 5.11
Pain Relevance 4.60

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Ghsr) plasma membrane (Ghsr) signal transducer activity (Ghsr)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 10
tongue 2
brain 2
papillae 2
arcuate nucleus 2
Ghsr (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Ventral tegmentum 148 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 475 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
midbrain 14 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 3 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 144 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 248 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 155 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
IPN 1 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 35 95.48 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 51 94.00 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Aids-related Complex 12 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 617 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 364 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammatory Pain 1 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Anorexia 1 96.00 Very High Very High Very High
Appetite Loss 63 95.36 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 789 92.12 High High
Syndrome 92 86.80 High High
Dysgeusia 12 85.60 High High
Insulin Resistance 216 83.56 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
This observation could explain why the GHSR null mice only showed alterations in taste sensitivity to salty and sour tastants, even though ghrelin and GHSR were expressed in all 4 cell types.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR
1) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
GHSR is also expressed in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting that ghrelin may play a role in regulating the mesolimbic system.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in dopaminergic neurons associated with ventral tegmentum and midbrain
2) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.38
GOAT and GHSR are expressed in the TCs of WT mice
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR
3) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.04
We found that ghrelin and GHSR are expressed in the fungiform papillae (Figures S5A and S5B).
Gene_expression (re expres) of GHSR in papillae
4) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
We next investigated whether the GHSR was expressed in TCs.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR
5) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.04
We demonstrated that the GHSR was expressed on all four types of TCs in CV and foliate papillae (Figure 4, Figure S2).
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in papillae
6) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0.04
Secondly, in the GHSR null mice we demonstrated a hyposensitivity to only CA (sour) and NaCl (salty) tastes, indicating that—despite ghrelin and GHSR being expressed in all four TC types—there was not a widespread effect on all taste qualities.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR
7) Confidence 0.76 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.26
Much later in life, aged individuals retain ghrelin-induced GH secretion as well as GHSR expression in the brain [4], [36].
Gene_expression (expression) of GHSR in brain
8) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
GHSR expression is seen early, at embryonic day 19 in the rat pituitary gland as well as in the brain [34], [35].
Gene_expression (expression) of GHSR in brain
9) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.18
The ghrelin receptor (GHSR, growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1) is found in several neuronal subtypes in the arcuate nucleus [8]–[11], where a diffuse pattern of ghrelin-containing terminals has been demonstrated [12].
Gene_expression (found) of ghrelin receptor in arcuate nucleus
10) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
The ghrelin receptor (GHSR, growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1) is found in several neuronal subtypes in the arcuate nucleus [8]–[11], where a diffuse pattern of ghrelin-containing terminals has been demonstrated [12].
Gene_expression (found) of GHSR in arcuate nucleus
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
For a comparison, GHSR is expressed in both GH cells and GHRH neurons [1], [4], but the effects of ghrelin are not identical in both these cell types.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in neurons
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
NPY neurons are the main ghrelin receptor (GHSR)-expressing cells of the arcuate nucleus [9], [10], and they upregulate c-fos expression in response to ghrelin perfusion [5].
Gene_expression (-) of GHSR in neurons
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
In addition to its direct effects on the pituitary, ghrelin clearly targets GH release indirectly at the level of the arcuate nucleus since: 1) anatomical disconnections between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland blunt GH secretion induced by GHS in vivo [13], [14]; 2) the GHSR is expressed in GHRH neurons, which trigger GH release by the pituitary gland [8]–[11]; 3) in vivo GHS treatments enhance GHRH secretion in sheep [1], [15] and induce c-fos expression in GHRH neurons in rodents [16].
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in pituitary
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.05
Thus, the ghrelin responsiveness observed at different developmental stages in GHRH neurons, was compatible with the profile of GHSR expression in the brain [34]–[36].


Gene_expression (expression) of GHSR in neurons
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Alternately, the different hypothalamic effects of ghrelin might evolve independently during development, since ghrelin and GHSR are expressed at early stages in life [34], [35], [63].
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR
16) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
NPY neurons are the main ghrelin receptor (GHSR)-expressing cells of the arcuate nucleus [9], [10], and they upregulate c-fos expression in response to ghrelin perfusion [5].
Gene_expression (-) of ghrelin receptor in neurons
17) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2820089 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.08
Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of type 1a GHSR in mouse spinal cord by molecular biology, biochemistry, histology, and electrophysiology.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (expression) of GHSR in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
18) Confidence 0.68 Published 2008 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 18202139 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.30
Prepro-ghrelin, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC 1/3), ghrelin, its cognate receptor (GHSR), and ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT , the enzyme that activates ghrelin) are expressed in Type I, II, III and IV taste cells of mouse taste buds.
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in taste buds
19) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2939079 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Early studies demonstrated that RNAs for ghrelin, as well as GHSR, are expressed in the pancreas of rats and humans [9, 15, 54, 55] and ?
Gene_expression (expressed) of GHSR in pancreas
20) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal International Journal of Peptides Section Body Doc Link PMC2911604 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0

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