INT15147

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Context Info
Confidence 0.47
First Reported 1986
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 16
Total Number 17
Disease Relevance 12.59
Pain Relevance 6.34

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Vip)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 3
brain 2
hypothalamus 1
joint 1
neuronal 1
Vip (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
substance P 80 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 22 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 10 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Action potential 2 99.10 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 124 98.90 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 352 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 108 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Spinal cord 22 97.98 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple sclerosis 115 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Autoimmune Disease 81 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 386 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 128 98.20 Very High Very High Very High
Colitis 120 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple Sclerosis 140 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Increased Venous Pressure Under Development 16 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatoid Arthritis 66 97.44 Very High Very High Very High
Motor Neuron Diseases 70 97.40 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 190 97.24 Very High Very High Very High
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome 55 96.80 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
For example, the neuropeptide-rich hypothalamus region showed decreased (Met)enkephalin in PC2 deficient mice, but NPY, VIP, galanin, and CRF were not altered.
Neg (not) Regulation (altered) of VIP in hypothalamus associated with neuropeptide and enkephalin
1) Confidence 0.47 Published 2003 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 12860111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.74
The effects of exogenously adding several gastrointestinal regulatory peptides (beta-endorphin, substance P, met-enkephalin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, bombesin and somatostatin) on the incorporation of 3H-methyl-thymidine was determined.
Regulation (effects) of vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with somatostatin, enkephalin and substance p
2) Confidence 0.44 Published 1986 Journal Immunol. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 2427444 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.23
Immunological dysregulation of vital biochemical and/or epigenetic mechanisms affecting PACAP and VIP resulting in down-regulation of cAMP are possible pathways by which disease entities become manifest.
Regulation (affecting) of VIP associated with disease
3) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.47 Pain Relevance 0.29
These levels were even higher in VIP treated mice.
Regulation (higher) of VIP
4) Confidence 0.34 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC1257432 Disease Relevance 0.86 Pain Relevance 0.42
To evaluate the influence of VIP on inhibitory synaptic transmission between SCN neurons, we used whole cell patch-clamp recording in an acute brain slice preparation of mouse SCN.
Regulation (influence) of VIP in brain
5) Confidence 0.27 Published 2003 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12966176 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
Since all spinal cord neurons appear to exhibit spontaneous action potentials after one week in vitro, activity-dependent regulation of VIP-transcripts (mRNAVIP) could be studied with or without electrical blockade induced by tetrodotoxin (TTX).
Regulation (regulation) of VIP in spinal cord neurons associated with tetrodotoxin, action potential and spinal cord
6) Confidence 0.27 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1715967 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.60
Met-enkephalin immunoreactivity was localized in multipolar medium sized neurons while VIP immunoreactivity was visualized both in neurons with extensively branched processes and in bipolar cells some of which appeared to be dorsal root ganglion cells.
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of VIP in neurons associated with ganglion cysts, dorsal root ganglion and enkephalin
7) Confidence 0.23 Published 1988 Journal Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3069239 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.63
Autoimmunity affecting PACAP and VIP has been postulated as a possible contributing factor in MS and ALS,79 PD80 and CFS.81

Role of PACAP and VIP in the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier

Regulation (affecting) of VIP in blood associated with chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease and motor neuron diseases
8) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.61 Pain Relevance 0.42
Implications for the BBB/BSB functioning are important as the VRS has been identified as a location for immunoreactive lymphocytes in penetration of neuronal parenchyma.25 Also VIP has been identified in connection with neuronal function and VRS, which suggests that VIP may have a regulatory function associated with vasodilatation.26 We assert that important immunoregulation occurs in perivascular spaces and VRS and that this may involve PACAP/VIP regulation.
Regulation (regulation) of VIP in neuronal associated with increased venous pressure under development
9) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.07
Protective effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on bone destruction in the collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of inflammatory synovitis accompanied by destruction of joint cartilage and bone.

Regulation (effect) of vasoactive intestinal peptide in joint associated with autoimmune disease, inflammation, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis and arthritis
10) Confidence 0.21 Published 2005 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Title Doc Link PMC1257432 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.46
In this commentary, the contribution of various neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and somatostatin to the regulation of T cell activation is discussed.
Regulation (regulation) of vasoactive intestinal peptide in T cell associated with somatostatin, neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance p
11) Confidence 0.17 Published 2001 Journal Respir Res Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2002076 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.36
Maximal relaxations obtained were 110, 44, and 46% with median effective concentrations (EC50) values of 7.8, 813.7, and 24.5 nM for CGRP, carbamylcholine, and VIP, respectively.
Regulation (values) of VIP associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide
12) Confidence 0.16 Published 1997 Journal J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9300319 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
The SCN target of VIP, the VPAC2 receptor, is heavily expressed in all regions/divisions of the SCN, indicating VIP–VPAC2 signaling to be influential in intercellular signaling between SCN neurons (Kalamatianos et al. 2004; Kallo et al. 2004).
Regulation (target) of VIP in neurons
13) Confidence 0.14 Published 2008 Journal Journal of Neurochemistry Section Body Doc Link PMC2658715 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
The multiple functions of PACAP and VIP impact on maintaining BBB/BSB function.
Regulation (functions) of VIP
14) Confidence 0.09 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.53 Pain Relevance 0.42
Autoimmunity affecting PACAP and VIP has been postulated as a possible contributing factor in MS and ALS,79 PD80 and CFS.81

Role of PACAP and VIP in the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier

Regulation (affecting) of VIP in brain associated with chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, autoimmune disease and motor neuron diseases
15) Confidence 0.07 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.61 Pain Relevance 0.42
Kishimoto et al. reported an increased VIP immunoreactivity in neurons and nerve fibers in both plexuses of the colon and an elevated content of VIP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats [51].
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of VIP in nerve associated with colitis
16) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2909178 Disease Relevance 1.69 Pain Relevance 0.37
Kishimoto et al. reported an increased VIP immunoreactivity in neurons and nerve fibers in both plexuses of the colon and an elevated content of VIP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats [51].
Regulation (immunoreactivity) of VIP in neurons associated with colitis
17) Confidence 0.02 Published 2010 Journal J Neuroinflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2909178 Disease Relevance 1.69 Pain Relevance 0.37

General Comments

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