INT15148

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Context Info
Confidence 0.77
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 4
Reported most in Body
Documents 51
Total Number 55
Disease Relevance 25.61
Pain Relevance 18.33

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Vip)
Anatomy Link Frequency
T cells 4
plasma 3
spinal cord 3
Macrophages 2
liver 2
Vip (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Neuropeptide 503 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 328 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 137 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 120 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Serotonin 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 12 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
gABA 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 311 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 42 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
pruritus 177 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Alzheimer's Dementia 160 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 103 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pneumonia 78 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 223 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Motor Neuron Diseases 156 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Pruritus 234 99.48 Very High Very High Very High
Autoimmune Disease 194 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Fatigue 133 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 31 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Multiple Sclerosis 308 99.00 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
In summary, the regulation of VIP gene expression in embryonic spinal cord neurons shows a temporal sensitivity to TTX-induced electrical blockade and may be mediated by multiple neurotransmitter inputs which converge on cAMP- and calcium-related processes in an activity-dependent manner.
Gene_expression (expression) of VIP gene in spinal cord neurons associated with tetrodotoxin, neurotransmitter and spinal cord
1) Confidence 0.77 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1715967 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.70
Spontaneous electrical activity regulates vasoactive intestinal peptide expression in dissociated spinal cord cell cultures.
Gene_expression (expression) of vasoactive intestinal peptide in spinal cord associated with spinal cord
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 1715967 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P, somatostatin, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and enkephalin were found in extracts of liver, gallbladder and bile duct.
Gene_expression (found) of VIP in liver associated with bile, neuropeptide, somatostatin, enkephalin and substance p
3) Confidence 0.65 Published 2000 Journal Ups. J. Med. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11261606 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.69
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P, somatostatin, neurotensin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and enkephalin were found in extracts of liver, gallbladder and bile duct.
Gene_expression (found) of Vasoactive intestinal peptide in liver associated with bile, neuropeptide, somatostatin, enkephalin and substance p
4) Confidence 0.65 Published 2000 Journal Ups. J. Med. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11261606 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.69
Functions of PACAP and VIP
Gene_expression (Functions) of VIP
5) Confidence 0.59 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.19
In a series of ALS patients, CSF levels of VIP were found to be significantly lower compared with controls.62 VIP has demonstrated potent effects on neurite outgrowth in spinal cord cultures suggesting its use in treatment of ALS.63 Interestingly Sun and colleagues64 noted impaired VIP receptor (VPAC2) production in activated T cells in MS patients, suggesting transcription irregularity at promoter regions of the VPAC2 gene.
Gene_expression (levels) of VIP in neurite associated with multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases and spinal cord
6) Confidence 0.59 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.20 Pain Relevance 0.28
In a series of ALS patients, CSF levels of VIP were found to be significantly lower compared with controls.62 VIP has demonstrated potent effects on neurite outgrowth in spinal cord cultures suggesting its use in treatment of ALS.63 Interestingly Sun and colleagues64 noted impaired VIP receptor (VPAC2) production in activated T cells in MS patients, suggesting transcription irregularity at promoter regions of the VPAC2 gene.
Gene_expression (production) of VIP in T cells associated with multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases and spinal cord
7) Confidence 0.59 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 0.24
VNs,

such as PACAP and VIP, exert potent effects in metabolism as they have a vital

Gene_expression (VNs) of VIP associated with neuropeptide
8) Confidence 0.59 Published 2008 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2643053 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.09
Results demonstrated three features with regard to the selective roles of PC2 in determining the production of NPY, somatostatin-28, enkephalin, VIP, galanin, and CRF in neuroendocrine tissues.
Gene_expression (production) of VIP associated with somatostatin and enkephalin
9) Confidence 0.59 Published 2003 Journal Neuropeptides Section Abstract Doc Link 12860111 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.72
Finally, a peak in the expression of certain peptides, including VIP, NPY and CRF, is present around the time of eye opening, when the retina begins the analysis of structured visual information, suggesting important roles of these peptides during this delicate phase of retinal development.
Gene_expression (expression) of VIP in retina
10) Confidence 0.53 Published 2003 Journal Histol. Histopathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 12973690 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0.50
Activity-dependent expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was investigated in spinal cord/dorsal root ganglia cultures derived from embryonic mice.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (expression) of vasoactive intestinal peptide in dorsal root ganglia associated with spinal cord
11) Confidence 0.52 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1715967 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Activity-dependent expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was investigated in spinal cord/dorsal root ganglia cultures derived from embryonic mice.
Spec (investigated) Gene_expression (expression) of VIP in dorsal root ganglia associated with spinal cord
12) Confidence 0.52 Published 1991 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 1715967 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.45
Also, VIP has been identified in connection with neuronal function and VRS suggesting that
Gene_expression (identified) of VIP in neuronal
13) Confidence 0.52 Published 2008 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2643053 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.39
PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB.
Gene_expression (distributed) of VIP in central nervous system associated with central nervous system
14) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.60 Pain Relevance 0.55
PACAP/VIP compromise could result in impaired AC activation and hence impaired cAMP production.
Gene_expression (compromise) of VIP
15) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.14
Other mechanisms such as water channel function are influenced by PACAP/VIP.
Gene_expression (influenced) of VIP
16) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.43 Pain Relevance 0.03
PACAP/VIP compromise will result in impaired AC activation and hence impaired cAMP production.
Gene_expression (compromise) of VIP
17) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0.15
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which a vascular component is suggested and immunoreactivity of Bax, a proapoptotic protein regulated in part by PACAP/VIP in astrocytes, suggests a role for autoimmunity in the pathology of FTD.44 Astrogliosis in FTD corresponds with SPECT hypoperfusion, suggesting that astrocyte disruption may be related to disturbances of cerebral perfusion in FTD.45 Cognitive dysfunction is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in different types of dementia.46 Moreover VRS dilatation associated with microvessel abnormality may contribute to the diagnosis of vascular dementias.47 Changes in social behavior occur in cerebrovascular comprise and may result from an FTD-like syndrome.48 Similarly, reduction in cortical blood flow has been identified in CFS patients;49,50 however these findings were not replicated in a study of twins with CFS.51 FTD however is recognized in ALS.91
Gene_expression (astrocytes) of VIP in astrocytes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome, vascular dementia, cognitive disorder, autoimmune disease, dementia, syndrome, neurodegenerative disease and motor neuron diseases
18) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.63 Pain Relevance 0.13
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which a vascular component is suggested and immunoreactivity of Bax, a proapoptotic protein regulated in part by PACAP/VIP in astrocytes, suggests a role for autoimmunity in the pathology of FTD.44 Astrogliosis in FTD corresponds with SPECT hypoperfusion, suggesting that astrocyte disruption may be related to disturbances of cerebral perfusion in FTD.45 Cognitive dysfunction is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in different types of dementia.46 Moreover VRS dilatation associated with microvessel abnormality may contribute to the diagnosis of vascular dementias.47 Changes in social behavior occur in cerebrovascular comprise and may result from an FTD-like syndrome.48 Similarly, reduction in cortical blood flow has been identified in CFS patients;49,50 however these findings were not replicated in a study of twins with CFS.51 FTD however is recognized in ALS.91
Gene_expression (/) of VIP in astrocytes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome, vascular dementia, cognitive disorder, autoimmune disease, dementia, syndrome, neurodegenerative disease and motor neuron diseases
19) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 1.63 Pain Relevance 0.13
Tissue injury may be amplified over months or years as a result of oligodendrocyte cell death associated with myelin phagocytosis initiating local macrophage scavenger activity.65 This paradigm is consistent with PACAP/VIP failure.
Neg (failure) Gene_expression (failure) of VIP in macrophage associated with injury and death
20) Confidence 0.51 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695238 Disease Relevance 0.78 Pain Relevance 0.19

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