INT15347

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Context Info
Confidence 0.70
First Reported 1985
Last Reported 2011
Negated 5
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 81
Total Number 90
Disease Relevance 28.10
Pain Relevance 31.01

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Pomc) generation of precursor metabolites and energy (Pomc) extracellular space (Pomc)
extracellular region (Pomc) cell-cell signaling (Pomc) cytoplasm (Pomc)
Anatomy Link Frequency
pituitary 26
neurons 10
neuronal 6
corticotrophs 6
brain 4
Pomc (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
ketamine 21 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 63 99.86 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 29 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 25 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
tolerance 15 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
analgesia 11 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
cocaine 34 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 383 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 675 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 8 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 1914 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nervous System Injury 2 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Pituitary Cancer 145 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 816 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia 3 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 40 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 321 98.50 Very High Very High Very High
Carney Complex 3 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Dyspepsia 3 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 100 98.04 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
AtT-20 cells were stimulated with secretagogues to induce secretion of beta-endorphin.
Positive_regulation (induce) of Localization (secretion) of beta-endorphin in AtT-20
1) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Reg Anesth Pain Med Section Body Doc Link 12567337 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
RESULTS: Ketamine increased secretion of beta-endorphin to levels that were up to 3 times greater than baseline secretion.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of beta-endorphin
2) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Reg Anesth Pain Med Section Body Doc Link 12567337 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Stimulation of beta-endorphin secretion by ketamine persisted into the subsequent day.
Positive_regulation (Stimulation) of Localization (secretion) of beta-endorphin
3) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Reg Anesth Pain Med Section Body Doc Link 12567337 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Ketamine stimulates secretion of beta-endorphin from a mouse pituitary cell line.
Positive_regulation (stimulates) of Localization (secretion) of beta-endorphin in pituitary associated with ketamine
4) Confidence 0.70 Published 2003 Journal Reg Anesth Pain Med Section Title Doc Link 12567337 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.39
Thus, in the ethanol-preferring animals, the increased release of beta-endorphin following exposure to ethanol was associated with a higher density of delta- or mu-opioid receptors in brain regions important for reinforcement, such as the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, and may interact with the dopaminergic system and promote ethanol's reinforcing properties, leading to excessive drinking and alcoholism.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of beta-endorphin in brain associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, alcohol addiction and mu opioid receptor
5) Confidence 0.69 Published 1996 Journal Alcohol Alcohol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8736999 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.65
Thus, in the ethanol-preferring animals, the increased release of beta-endorphin following exposure to ethanol was associated with a higher density of delta- or mu-opioid receptors in brain regions important for reinforcement, such as the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, and may interact with the dopaminergic system and promote ethanol's reinforcing properties, leading to excessive drinking and alcoholism.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (release) of beta-endorphin in brain associated with ventral tegmentum, nucleus accumbens, alcohol addiction and mu opioid receptor
6) Confidence 0.69 Published 1996 Journal Alcohol Alcohol Suppl Section Abstract Doc Link 9845036 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.65
The influence of capsaicin sensitive neurons on stress-induced release of ACTH.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of ACTH in neurons associated with stress and qutenza
7) Confidence 0.69 Published 1986 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Title Doc Link 3013379 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0.70
Weanlings displayed marked tolerance to the stimulation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion by morphine.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH associated with tolerance and morphine
8) Confidence 0.69 Published 1995 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Abstract Doc Link 8711068 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 1.13
In combination to the decreased proliferation activity of AtT20 cells, grown in the serum-reduced medium we found a strongly enhanced ACTH secretion activity stimulated by the corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in contrast to normally cultivated AtT20 cells (10% serum).
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH in AtT20
9) Confidence 0.68 Published 1994 Journal Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) Section Abstract Doc Link 8003951 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.09
In vitro, T helper (Th) type 1 and type 2 cytokine stimulation of CD4+ T cells or isolation of T cells from in vivo Th-polarized mice did not increase T cell release of beta-endorphin or the induction of beta-endorphin expression in the myenteric plexus.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of beta-endorphin in T cells associated with cytokine
10) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16959949 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.71
Pain attenuation was associated with an increase in beta-endorphin release by T cells and an upregulation of beta-endorphin in the enteric nervous system.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Localization (release) of beta-endorphin in enteric nervous system associated with pain
11) Confidence 0.68 Published 2007 Journal Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 16959949 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.55
The latter have been implicated in a number of the effects of dynorphins including induction of ACTH release in sheep and in AtT 20 cells, a pituitary-derived mouse cell line.
Positive_regulation (induction) of Localization (release) of ACTH in pituitary
12) Confidence 0.67 Published 1998 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9593843 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.61
These findings suggest that during some conditions of increased ACTH secretion, inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are activated and that these receptors limit the ACTH response.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH
13) Confidence 0.66 Published 1990 Journal Neuroendocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 1968233 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.53
This study examined the effects of an alpha-2-adrenoceptor antagonist on the secretion of ACTH basally and in response to the opioid antagonist naloxone, which is known to stimulate ACTH secretion by an adrenergic mechanism.
Positive_regulation (stimulate) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH associated with antagonist, narcan and opioid
14) Confidence 0.66 Published 1990 Journal Neuroendocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 1968233 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.52
The hypothesis that the catecholaminergic systems can also act inhibitory on the HPA axis is supported by findings of Radley et al. who showed that lesions of noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the medial prefrontal cortex in Sprague Dawley rats enhance emotional stress-induced ACTH release, which then stimulates GC release after restraint stress exposure.
Positive_regulation (enhance) of Localization (release) of ACTH in prefrontal associated with stress and locus ceruleus
15) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2845127 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.20
The hypothesis that the catecholaminergic systems can also act inhibitory on the HPA axis is supported by findings of Radley et al. who showed that lesions of noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the medial prefrontal cortex in Sprague Dawley rats enhance emotional stress-induced ACTH release, which then stimulates GC release after restraint stress exposure.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Localization (release) of ACTH in prefrontal associated with stress and locus ceruleus
16) Confidence 0.60 Published 2010 Journal BMC Physiol Section Body Doc Link PMC2845127 Disease Relevance 0.47 Pain Relevance 0.20
These findings suggest that: voltage-dependent sodium channels are present on alpha-MSH hypothalamic neurons; depolarization by K+ induces a marked stimulation of alpha-MSH release; K+- and veratridine-evoke releases are calcium-dependent.
Positive_regulation (induces) of Localization (release) of alpha-MSH in neurons associated with sodium channel
17) Confidence 0.59 Published 1987 Journal Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 3607476 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.39
On the other hand, it is essential for ACTH secretion under stress conditions, and CRH would affect on the prohormone convertase-1/3 processing enzyme in AP.
Positive_regulation (essential) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH associated with stress
18) Confidence 0.57 Published 2004 Journal Neurosci. Lett. Section Abstract Doc Link 15331153 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.07
It seems likely that endogenous opioids also inhibit the release of a third ACTH secretagogue or promote the secretion of an ACTH release inhibitory factor.
Positive_regulation (promote) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH associated with endogenous opioid
19) Confidence 0.53 Published 1995 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 7588252 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.36
Both NAL doses increased jugular cortisol concentrations (high, P = 0.0022; low, P = 0.0001) and the ACTH secretion rate (high, P = 0.0056; low, P = 0.0103).
Positive_regulation (increased) of Localization (secretion) of ACTH associated with narcan
20) Confidence 0.53 Published 1995 Journal Endocrinology Section Abstract Doc Link 7588252 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.57

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