INT1536

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 1976
Last Reported 2011
Negated 0
Speculated 3
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 244
Total Number 248
Disease Relevance 52.67
Pain Relevance 59.79

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
external 10
heart 8
brain 5
spike 4
neuronal 4
NA (Homo sapiens)
NA - D387N (1) NA - S401K (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
tetrodotoxin 806 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Action potential 556 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
adenocard 143 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
depression 88 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
local anesthetic 58 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcium channel 34 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 25 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
noradrenaline 16 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
diclofenac 26 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Depression 87 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Vomiting 23 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 360 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 122 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Frailty 56 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Liver Disease 2 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Fever 206 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 141 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Syndrome 153 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 1177 99.62 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
The observed anti-nociceptive effects of amiloride and pralidoxime may possibly be attributed to inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchangers with subsequent decrease in Ca2+ ions and oxidative stress.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Na associated with stress and nociception
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18486127 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.86
These compounds also inhibited Na(+)-H+ exchanger activity in these membrane vesicles, but with a different order of potency: dimethylamiloride > MIBA > amiloride > benzamil > cimetidine > clonidine.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of Na in vesicles associated with clonidine and potency
2) Confidence 0.51 Published 1992 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1331095 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.46
Incubation of synaptosomes for 100 sec with (+/-)-kavain was sufficient to reduce dose dependently the stimulated increase of [Na+]i with an IC50 value of 86.0 mumol/l, and almost complete inhibition of Na(+)-channels was attained with 400 mumol/l) reduced veratridine-elevated [Na+]i to 30.4% and 7.9% of control whereas the centrally acting muscle relaxant mephenesin (400 mumol/l) was without any effect.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Na in muscle
3) Confidence 0.48 Published 1995 Journal Neuropharmacology Section Abstract Doc Link 8532183 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.11
The observed anti-nociceptive effects of amiloride and pralidoxime may possibly be attributed to inhibition of Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/H+ exchangers with subsequent decrease in Ca2+ ions and oxidative stress.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Na associated with stress and nociception
4) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal Eur. J. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 18486127 Disease Relevance 1.11 Pain Relevance 0.86
In our routine screening of chemicals that would inhibit cardiac sarcolemmal Na+/H+ antiporter, we discovered that some of the opioids produced inhibition of cardiac sarcolemmal Na+/H+ antiporter in micromolar concentrations.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Na associated with opioid
5) Confidence 0.48 Published 1992 Journal Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1333352 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.39
Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with ouabain and also tetraethylammonium ions, which block potassium channels, had no inhibiting effect on polarization.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of Na associated with potassium channel
6) Confidence 0.45 Published 1986 Journal J. Cell. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 3793782 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
For example, transection of the peripheral axons of spinal sensory neurons triggers downregulation of some Na+ channel genes and up-regulation of others, resulting in changes in Na+ current expression that produce hyperexcitability, thereby contributing to chronic pain.
Negative_regulation (downregulation) of Na in sensory neurons associated with lasting pain and hyperexcitability
7) Confidence 0.43 Published 2002 Journal Novartis Found. Symp. Section Abstract Doc Link 11771649 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.22
Although the Na+/H+ exchange activity was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin or digitoxin, it was inhibited by quinidine, quinacrine, amiloride, and several amiloride derivatives.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of Na associated with tetrodotoxin
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 1985 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2985568 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.14
The effect of tetrodotoxin, a specific inhibitor of the Na+ channel, and 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger, on the mechanical and metabolic derangements induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied in the isolated perfused rat heart.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of Na in heart associated with tetrodotoxin
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10528989 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.16
Inhibition of Na+ channel or Na+/H+ exchanger attenuates the hydrogen peroxide-induced derangements in isolated perfused rat heart.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of Na in heart
10) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 10528989 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.35
Inhibition of Na+ channel or Na+/H+ exchanger attenuates the hydrogen peroxide-induced derangements in isolated perfused rat heart.
Negative_regulation (Inhibition) of Na in heart
11) Confidence 0.41 Published 1999 Journal J. Pharm. Pharmacol. Section Title Doc Link 10528989 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.34
Pretreatment of the preparation with amiloride (10(-3)M), an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange, completely prevented the alkalinization and markedly reduced the potentiating effect of clonidine on the isoproterenol-induced respiratory rate.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of Na in respiratory associated with clonidine
12) Confidence 0.41 Published 1988 Journal Pflugers Arch. Section Abstract Doc Link 2837723 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.48
Lidocaine at 10 microM inhibited H+ efflux in the presence of an inward Na+ gradient, suggesting that this anesthetic specifically inhibits the Na+/H+ antiporter.
Negative_regulation (inhibits) of Na associated with lidocaine
13) Confidence 0.40 Published 1990 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 2172680 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.35
Preincubation with the Na+ channel antagonist tetrodotoxin or removal of the extracellular Na+ blocked the response.
Negative_regulation (removal) of Na associated with tetrodotoxin and antagonist
14) Confidence 0.38 Published 1993 Journal Nat. Immun. Section Abstract Doc Link 8392407 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.19
In calciuric normomagnesemic patients, sensitive to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (classic Bartter's syndrome), red blood cell Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransport was markedly reduced, calcium-dependent K+ permeability was moderately increased, and up to 60% of sodium permeability was represented by cAMP-activated fraction (presumably human analog of beta-isoform of Na+/H+ exchange).
Negative_regulation (reduced) of Na in red blood cell associated with inflammation, syndrome and cinod
15) Confidence 0.38 Published 1997 Journal Hypertension Section Abstract Doc Link 9403550 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.15
A new subtype of Bartter-like syndrome ("variant Bartter's syndrome") has been described in which calciuria, hypomagnesemia, and insensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with decreased Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransport, enhanced calmodulin-activated fraction of Na+ influx, and reduced calcium-dependent K+ permeability.
Negative_regulation (decreased) of Na associated with hypomagnesemia, inflammation, syndrome and cinod
16) Confidence 0.38 Published 1997 Journal Hypertension Section Abstract Doc Link 9403550 Disease Relevance 0.95 Pain Relevance 0.17
When Na+ influx was diminished by LIDO (10 mumol l-1) SFmax and PIEmax were increased compared to control (2.4 +/- 0.1 Hz and +4.1 +/- 0.9 mN, p < 0.05 versus control).
Negative_regulation (diminished) of Na
17) Confidence 0.37 Published 1997 Journal Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9205957 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Except for methionine-enkephalin, all compounds were inhibitors of Na+K+ATPase in the range of 1-10 mmol/L.
Negative_regulation (inhibitors) of Na associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.37 Published 1991 Journal Clin. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1718632 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.32
The antiarrhythmic activity of naloxone is more closely related to the inhibition of Na+ and K+ currents rather than the blockade of myocardial opioid receptors.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of Na associated with narcan and opioid receptor
19) Confidence 0.37 Published 1998 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 9771910 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.48
Similarly, removal of Na+ from the perfusate resulted in significantly improved recovery of conduction in dorsal column axons.
Negative_regulation (removal) of Na in dorsal associated with dorsal column
20) Confidence 0.37 Published 1997 Journal J. Neurotrauma Section Abstract Doc Link 9199396 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.57

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