INT154867

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 2008
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 28
Total Number 31
Disease Relevance 6.97
Pain Relevance 3.72

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Anatomy Link Frequency
liver 4
macrophages 1
pituitary 1
small intestine 1
intestine 1
CECR (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cauda equina syndrome 109 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 261 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 5 97.28 Very High Very High Very High
depression 71 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
antinociception 2 92.80 High High
antidepressant 5 90.64 High High
Analgesic 5 89.72 High High
Nicotine 2 89.64 High High
backache 28 89.20 High High
alcohol 3 89.12 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Polyradiculopathy 109 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pathologic Constriction 33 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 83 99.28 Very High Very High Very High
Sleep Disorders 9 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Emergencies 1 97.52 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 271 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 9 96.48 Very High Very High Very High
Ganglion Cysts 6 94.40 High High
Heart Disease 21 91.52 High High
Cancer 25 90.08 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Conclusion : The classical presentation of CES is not obvious.
Gene_expression (presentation) of CES associated with cauda equina syndrome
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 2008 Journal Acta Orthop Belg Section Abstract Doc Link 18811037 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.35
CONCLUSIONS: There are marked inconsistencies in the current evidence base surrounding the etiology and clinical presentation of CES, with 17 definitions identified.
Gene_expression (presentation) of CES
2) Confidence 0.57 Published 2009 Journal Arch Phys Med Rehabil Section Body Doc Link 19887225 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Expression of the predicted CES genes in the liver and small intestine was analyzed by RT-PCR (Figure 1).
Spec (analyzed) Gene_expression (Expression) of CES in small intestine
3) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
Figure 2 and Table 2 show the amino acid sequence alignments, the predicted secondary structures and sequence identities for the predicted opossum CES1, multiple CES2Like and CES6Like proteins, as well as the six human CES gene products, previously described [16-26] (RS Holmes, J Glenn, JL VandeBerg & LA Cox: Baboon carboxylesterases 1 and 2: sequences, structures and phylogenetic relationships with human and other primate carboxylesterases, unpublished).
Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
4) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Liver and intestinal cDNAs were used as templates in RT-PCR to analyze expression of the predicted/cloned CES genes.
Spec (analyze) Gene_expression (expression) of CES in Liver
5) Confidence 0.56 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In humans, the mechanism of action of CES is not fully understood; however, it has been shown to “normalize” neurotransmitter homeostasis [32], stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by increasing IGF-1 production [33], bring neurotransmitters in stressed participants back to normal levels of homeostasis [34], and increase ?
Gene_expression (mechanism) of CES in pituitary associated with neurotransmitter
6) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Parkinson's Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2957248 Disease Relevance 1.02 Pain Relevance 1.21
Half of the devices provided active CES and the other half had no electric current flowing.
Gene_expression (provided) of CES
7) Confidence 0.53 Published 2010 Journal Parkinson's Disease Section Body Doc Link PMC2957248 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.36
Here we describe the genetics, expression and phylogeny of CES isozymes in the opossum and report on the sequences and locations of CES1, CES2 and CES6 'like' genes within two gene clusters on chromosome one.
Gene_expression (expression) of CES
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
This paper extends current knowledge on CES evolution to a marsupial species and reports the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence for an opossum CES (designated as CES2.1), RT-PCR expression and in silico studies providing evidence for CES1 and CES2 'like' genes on chromosome 1 of the opossum and the phylogenetic relationships of opossum CES2.1 and predicted opossum CES gene products with human CESs.
Gene_expression (expression) of CES
9) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0
It is likely that these enzymes have different subcellular distribution profiles as compared with other CES gene products.
Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
10) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These RT-PCR studies of opossum CES2.2 and CES2.3 genes show that the BLAT software [38,39] used to predict sequences for opossum CES gene products did not fully recognize all of the intron-exon junctions resulting in some deletions or insertions that are not found in the in vivo gene product.
Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
11) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
All of the opossum and human CESs examined showed similarities in sequences and predicted secondary structures, consistent with being members of the CES ??
Gene_expression (members) of CES
12) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.04
Using the opossum CES2 cDNA as the query in a BLAT search [38,39], we found two additional CES gene regions and cDNAs which are referred to as CES2.2 (gene designation: CES2.2) and CES2.3 (gene designation: CES2.3) (Table 1).
Gene_expression (regions) of CES gene
13) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
This paper extends current knowledge on CES evolution to a marsupial species and reports the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence for an opossum CES (designated as CES2.1), RT-PCR expression and in silico studies providing evidence for CES1 and CES2 'like' genes on chromosome 1 of the opossum and the phylogenetic relationships of opossum CES2.1 and predicted opossum CES gene products with human CESs.
Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
14) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
As mentioned previously, the N-glycosylation site reported for human CES1 (79–81: NAT) is retained for the opossum CES1 (NTT) and CES2.1 (NAT) sequences, but is absent from other opossum and human CES gene products, whereas opossum CES1 (2), CES2.1 (4), CES2.2 (1) and CES2.3 (1) have other potential glycosylation sites (Figure 3).
Neg (absent) Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
15) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The human CES2 C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence, His-Thr-Glu-Leu (HTEL), functions in protein retrieval from the Golgi apparatus and in CES retention in the ER lumen [12], but this is missing in opossum CES2.1 which may then influence the subcellular location and metabolic role for this enzyme in opossum liver.
Gene_expression (retention) of CES in liver
16) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The predicted amino acid sequence for opossum CES1 is shown in Figure 2 together with previously reported sequences for human CES1 and other opossum and human CES sequences [16-26].
Gene_expression (sequences) of CES
17) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Genome locations and predicted protein sequences were obtained for each CES sequence used and the results for those regions showing high (>70%) levels of identity with the human CES gene products or with opossum CES2.1 (full identity) were examined and compared with opossum and human CES sequences using the SIM-Alignment tool for Protein Sequences [57,58] (see Table 1).
Gene_expression (products) of CES gene
18) Confidence 0.48 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Opossum CES1 is an member of the gene CES1 family which has been previously shown to include other mammalian CES1 gene products from human, baboon, rat and mouse, as well as human CES4 [2,27] [RS Holmes, J Glenn, JL VandeBerg & LA Cox: Baboon carboxylesterases 1 and 2: sequences, structures and phylogenetic relationships with human and other primate carboxylesterases, unpublished].
Gene_expression (products) of CES4
19) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The RT-PCR studies reported earlier for opossum CES1, CES2, CES2.2 and CES2.3 genes confirm the existence, expression and sequences for CES coding regions for these opossum genes.
Gene_expression (expression) of CES
20) Confidence 0.43 Published 2008 Journal BMC Evol Biol Section Body Doc Link PMC2266714 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

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