INT15592

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 17
Total Number 29
Disease Relevance 8.66
Pain Relevance 8.36

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

plasma membrane (F2r) signal transducer activity (F2r)
Anatomy Link Frequency
bladder 7
plasma 2
smooth muscle 2
urine 2
myoblasts 2
F2r (Rattus norvegicus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
antagonist 22 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
nociceptor 4 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
interstitial cystitis 33 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 72 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Thermal hyperalgesia 12 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Peripheral sensitization 1 99.32 Very High Very High Very High
COX2 4 98.88 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 35 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Morphine 6 98.24 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 9 98.18 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Interstitial Cystitis 33 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 16 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Apoptosis 11 99.26 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 45 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Cystitis 44 99.20 Very High Very High Very High
Hypothermia 1 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
Congenital Anomalies 7 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Hemorrhage 47 97.84 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 293 97.48 Very High Very High Very High
Thrombocytopenia 1 97.38 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
We consider it a likely explanation that direct stimulation of MIF and PAR1 containing cells in the urothelium is involved in thrombin-stimulated MIF release in the rat bladder.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of PAR1 in bladder
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.53
In addition, activation of PAR1 receptors with specific agonists administered systemically results in plasma extravasation in the rat bladder due to release of SP from terminal afferents [38].
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR1 in bladder associated with agonist
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.60
Blocking activation of PAR1 receptors, blocking MIF or receptors for MIF should thus lead to decreased bladder inflammation.


Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR1 in bladder associated with inflammation
3) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.35
Activation of PAR1 receptors by neutrophil elastase was reported to induce apoptosis in lung epithelial cells [36] while activation of PAR1 and PAR2 receptors were shown to increase epithelial permeability in intestinal epithelia [37].
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR1 in epithelial cells associated with apoptosis
4) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.47
Furthermore, non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerve neurotransmitter candidates that may modulate K+ channels do not appear to contribute to the relaxation by PAR-1 activation.
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR-1 in nerve associated with neurotransmitter
5) Confidence 0.65 Published 2000 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11065174 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.17
Activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) produces a dual action, apamin-sensitive relaxation followed by contraction, in the rat duodenal smooth muscle, which is partially dependent on activation of L-type Ca2+ channels, protein kinase C (PKC) or tyrosine kinase (TK), and resistant to tetrodotoxin.
Positive_regulation (Activation) of protease-activated receptor-1 in smooth muscle associated with tetrodotoxin and kinase c
6) Confidence 0.65 Published 2000 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11065174 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
Activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) produces a dual action, apamin-sensitive relaxation followed by contraction, in the rat duodenal smooth muscle, which is partially dependent on activation of L-type Ca2+ channels, protein kinase C (PKC) or tyrosine kinase (TK), and resistant to tetrodotoxin.
Positive_regulation (Activation) of PAR-1 in smooth muscle associated with tetrodotoxin and kinase c
7) Confidence 0.65 Published 2000 Journal Life Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11065174 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.22
G-protein coupled receptor antagonists-1: protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonists as novel cardiovascular therapeutic agents.
Positive_regulation (activated) of PAR-1 associated with antagonist
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2003 Journal Curr Top Med Chem Section Title Doc Link 12769712 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0.31
Incubation of myotubes loaded with fluo-3-AM in presence of thrombin (200 nM) or PAR-1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN, 500 microM), induced the intracellular release of calcium indicating the activation of PAR-1.
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR-1 in myotubes associated with agonist
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 2001 Journal J. Cell. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11598900 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
Its specific receptor "protease activated receptor-1" (PAR-1), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been shown to be expressed in myoblasts but not after fusion (Suidan et al., 1996 J Biol Chem 271:29162-29169).
Positive_regulation (activated) of PAR-1 in myoblasts
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 2001 Journal J. Cell. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11598900 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
In fact, both mast cell tryptase and neutrophil elastase were documented to be increased in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis [34], [35], thus raising the possibility that PAR1 receptors could be activated in interstitial cystitis.
Positive_regulation (activated) of PAR1 in urine associated with interstitial cystitis
11) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.70 Pain Relevance 0.42
Although local thrombin formation during inflammation is likely to occur in the suburothelial compartment and thus stimulate basal and intermediate cells to elicit MIF release, our findings suggest that proteases present in the urine may also be able to activate PAR1 receptors in the urothelium, elicit MIF release and thus contribute to the initiation or maintenance of cystitis.
Positive_regulation (activate) of PAR1 in urine associated with inflammation and cystitis
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.20
Since PAR1 and MIF containing cells in rat urothelium are not located superficially, our findings that intravesical thrombin can induce MIF release from the rat bladder (presumably urothelium) suggest that intravesical thrombin was able to reach those cells to activate PAR1 receptors.
Positive_regulation (activate) of PAR1 in bladder
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.16
Thrombin induced upregulation of MIF expression in rat bladder tissue was determined by real time PCR.
Positive_regulation (upregulation) of Thrombin in bladder
14) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
We also examined the effect of in vivo thrombin stimulation on MIF release from the rat bladder.
Spec (examined) Positive_regulation (stimulation) of thrombin in bladder
15) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.06
These results indicate that PAR-1 activation increases the spontaneous release of L-glutamate onto SG neurons from nerve terminals in a manner dependent on extracellular Ca2+.
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR-1 in neurons associated with substantia gelatinosa and glutamate
16) Confidence 0.46 Published 2009 Journal J. Neurophysiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19420120 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0.61
These results indicate that activation of PAR1 receptors mediates MIF release from urothelial cell which can then mediate MIF-mediated bladder inflammation, given MIF's pro-inflammatory role in the bladder [6].
Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR1 in bladder associated with inflammation
17) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.32
Similarly, only approximately 30% of J82 (urothelial cancer cell line) cells were reported to be positive for PAR1 immunostaining [21].
Positive_regulation (positive) of PAR1 in J82 associated with cancer
18) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC3013117 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.09
Its specific receptor "protease activated receptor-1" (PAR-1), a G protein-coupled receptor, has been shown to be expressed in myoblasts but not after fusion (Suidan et al., 1996 J Biol Chem 271:29162-29169).
Positive_regulation (activated) of activated receptor-1 in myoblasts
19) Confidence 0.44 Published 2001 Journal J. Cell. Physiol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11598900 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These data indicate that activation of spinal PAR 2 and possibly PAR 1 results in the stimulation of the spinal cyclooxygenase cascade and a prostaglandin-dependent thermal hyperalgesia.
Spec (possibly) Positive_regulation (activation) of PAR 1 in spinal associated with thermal hyperalgesia
20) Confidence 0.38 Published 2004 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 15175421 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.90

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