INT15618

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Context Info
Confidence 0.58
First Reported 1989
Last Reported 2009
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 12
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 3.21
Pain Relevance 3.80

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular region (Penk)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 4
hypothalamus 2
Brain 2
germ cell 2
nucleus 2
Penk (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 17 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Endogenous opioid 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
electroacupuncture 16 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 9 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Limbic system 1 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 18 99.10 Very High Very High Very High
narcan 1 98.68 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 12 96.44 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperalgesia 2 91.56 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Parkinson's Disease 6 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Targeted Disruption 5 98.02 Very High Very High Very High
Nociception 4 96.22 Very High Very High Very High
Dyskinesias 15 96.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 6 94.72 High High
Hyperalgesia 2 91.56 High High
INFLAMMATION 4 91.04 High High
Inflammatory Pain 3 77.64 Quite High
Stress 4 75.00 Quite High
Arthritis 1 69.92 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Transgenic mice thus provide a useful model for the localization and characterization of cis-acting elements mediating transcription of the proenkephalin gene from its germ cell-specific promoter.
Positive_regulation (mediating) of Transcription (transcription) of proenkephalin gene in germ cell associated with targeted disruption
1) Confidence 0.58 Published 1991 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1748659 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0
In animals injected with haloperidol for 9 days, levels of the striatal PENK mRNA were increased by 100%.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (levels) of PENK
2) Confidence 0.41 Published 1995 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8750842 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Electrical stimulation of trigeminal afferents increases expression of preproenkephalin mRNA in neurons of laminae I and II of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in animals sacrificed 6 hours after the end of stimulation.
Positive_regulation (increases) of in neurons Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin in nucleus
3) Confidence 0.40 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 2615596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Preproenkephalin mRNA expression in nucleus caudalis neurons is enhanced by trigeminal stimulation.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of in neurons Transcription (expression) of Preproenkephalin in nucleus associated with enkephalin
4) Confidence 0.40 Published 1989 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 2615596 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
Monkeys were gavaged with L-DOPA (15 mg/kg) twice daily for a 2-week period and killed 3 days after treatment. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment alone resulted in an increase in preproenkephalin mRNA levels as previously shown.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Transcription (levels) of preproenkephalin associated with parkinson's disease
5) Confidence 0.38 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.57 Pain Relevance 0
These data show that, while elevations in striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels are associated with nigrostriatal damage, they are not linked to the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias.
Positive_regulation (elevations) of Transcription (levels) of preproenkephalin associated with dyskinesias
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.45 Pain Relevance 0
Because nigrostriatal damage per se is associated with increases in striatal preproenkephalin mRNA levels, it is difficult to know if changes in transcript levels are a result of lesioning or concurrent L-DOPA treatment and resulting dyskinesias.
Positive_regulation (increases) of Transcription (levels) of preproenkephalin associated with dyskinesias
7) Confidence 0.33 Published 2002 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 12123699 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
Preproenkephalin mRNA expression by striatopallidal neurons was unchanged at 48 h, but increased by 44% at 120 h.
Neg (unchanged) Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (expression) of Preproenkephalin in neurons
8) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11161620 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.56
Changes in striatal neuropeptides have been consistently described, including increased expression of preproenkephalin mRNA and decreased expression of preprotachykinin and prodynorphin mRNA.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin associated with neuropeptide
9) Confidence 0.19 Published 2001 Journal Exp. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 11161620 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.41
Within the limbic system and hypothalamus, estrogen induced the expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Transcription (expression) of preproenkephalin in hypothalamus associated with limbic system
10) Confidence 0.07 Published 2000 Journal Physiol. Behav. Section Abstract Doc Link 10913780 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0.22
Brain substrates activated by electroacupuncture (EA) of different frequencies (II): Role of Fos/Jun proteins in EA-induced transcription of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin genes.
Positive_regulation (induced) of Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin in Brain associated with enkephalin and electroacupuncture
11) Confidence 0.05 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Title Doc Link 9037530 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.55
The anti-nociceptive effects of PAR(1) agonist were mediated by endogenous opioids, as this effect was inhibited by local injection of naloxone methiodide, and because intraplantar injection of PAR(1) agonist increased mRNA expression of the endogenous opioid precursor proenkephalin.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Transcription (expression) of opioid precursor proenkephalin associated with nociception, narcan, endogenous opioid and agonist
12) Confidence 0.05 Published 2009 Journal Pain Section Abstract Doc Link 19674841 Disease Relevance 1.14 Pain Relevance 1.29
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of c-fos and/or c-jun were used in this study to investigate the role of Fos and Jun proteins in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced transcription of the opioid genes, preproenkephalin (PPE), preprodynorphin (PPD) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC).
Spec (investigate) Positive_regulation (-induced) of Spec (investigate) Transcription (transcription) of preproenkephalin associated with opioid and electroacupuncture
13) Confidence 0.03 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 9037530 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.43

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