INT157467

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Context Info
Confidence 0.55
First Reported 2009
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 6
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 16.67
Pain Relevance 8.84

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (CX3CL1) extracellular region (CX3CL1) plasma membrane (CX3CL1)
cytoplasm (CX3CL1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 6
lymphocyte 3
coronary artery 2
nerve 2
heart 2
CX3CL1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Chronic pancreatitis 45 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 20 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Visceral pain 5 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 292 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Neuritis 25 95.24 Very High Very High Very High
Pain 33 94.28 High High
chemokine 105 91.60 High High
antagonist 7 89.08 High High
Angina 7 80.04 Quite High
cytokine 35 74.48 Quite High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cardiovascular Disease 21 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Coronary Artery Disease 315 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Pancreatitis 45 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Fibrosis 30 99.58 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetic Nephropathy 35 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Irritable Bowel Syndrome /

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Super / Visceral Pain

5 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 285 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 175 98.12 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 84 98.06 Very High Very High Very High
Myocardial Infarction 14 96.72 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Furthermore, fractalkine and CX3CR1 mRNA overexpressions were associated with enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration.
Positive_regulation (overexpressions) of Gene_expression (overexpressions) of fractalkine in lymphocyte
1) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 1.86 Pain Relevance 1.52
CX3CR1, but not fractalkine, mRNA was overexpressed in CP.
Positive_regulation (overexpressed) of Gene_expression (overexpressed) of fractalkine associated with chronic pancreatitis
2) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 2.07 Pain Relevance 1.67
Advanced fibrosis was associated with increased fractalkine expression, whereas in vitro fractalkine had no significant impact on collagen-1 and alpha-SMA expressions in hPSCs.
Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (expression) of fractalkine associated with fibrosis
3) Confidence 0.55 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 1.64 Pain Relevance 1.48
Therefore, pancreatic fractalkine expression appears to be linked to visceral pain and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the pancreatic tissue and nerve fibers, with subsequent pancreatic neuritis.
Spec (appears) Positive_regulation (pancreatic) of Gene_expression (expression) of fractalkine in nerve associated with visceral pain, inflammation and neuritis
4) Confidence 0.40 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 1.40 Pain Relevance 1.31
Serum fractalkine levels are increased in patients with CHD during the acute inflammatory state of the disease, such as acute myocardial infarction or acute heart failure.22,47 After the acute phase of a cardiovascular inflammatory disease optimized medical treatment, such as that given during rehabilitation, may decrease the inflammatory status, as shown by the similar serum fractalkine levels in patients and healthy controls in this study.


Positive_regulation (increased) of Gene_expression (levels) of fractalkine in heart associated with coronary artery disease, inflammation, disease and myocardial infarction
5) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.77 Pain Relevance 0.32
Fractalkine levels have only been rarely determined in patients; however, it has been shown that Alzheimer patients express enhanced fractalkine levels, correlating with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.20 Another study also reported that fractalkine levels are enhanced in Wegener’s granulomatosis.21 In patients with coronary artery disease fractalkine plasma levels were enhanced and then reduced after statin therapy.22 When CX3CR1 genotypes were analyzed in patients with acute coronary syndromes and healthy controls, CX3CR1-I249 heterozygosity was associated with a markedly reduced risk of acute coronary events, independent of established coronary risk factors such as smoking or diabetes.23,24
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (express) of fractalkine in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, nicotine addiction, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease
6) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0.17
Fractalkine levels have only been rarely determined in patients; however, it has been shown that Alzheimer patients express enhanced fractalkine levels, correlating with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.20 Another study also reported that fractalkine levels are enhanced in Wegener’s granulomatosis.21 In patients with coronary artery disease fractalkine plasma levels were enhanced and then reduced after statin therapy.22 When CX3CR1 genotypes were analyzed in patients with acute coronary syndromes and healthy controls, CX3CR1-I249 heterozygosity was associated with a markedly reduced risk of acute coronary events, independent of established coronary risk factors such as smoking or diabetes.23,24
Positive_regulation (disease) of Gene_expression (levels) of fractalkine in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, nicotine addiction, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease
7) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.12
Fractalkine levels have only been rarely determined in patients; however, it has been shown that Alzheimer patients express enhanced fractalkine levels, correlating with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score.20 Another study also reported that fractalkine levels are enhanced in Wegener’s granulomatosis.21 In patients with coronary artery disease fractalkine plasma levels were enhanced and then reduced after statin therapy.22 When CX3CR1 genotypes were analyzed in patients with acute coronary syndromes and healthy controls, CX3CR1-I249 heterozygosity was associated with a markedly reduced risk of acute coronary events, independent of established coronary risk factors such as smoking or diabetes.23,24
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (levels) of fractalkine in plasma associated with acute coronary syndrome, nicotine addiction, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease
8) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.74 Pain Relevance 0.15
However, the cited data indicate that fractalkine levels are enhanced in CHD patients.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of Gene_expression (levels) of fractalkine associated with coronary artery disease
9) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.99 Pain Relevance 0.17
Upregulated fractalkine and CX3CR1 levels were present in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease in rats.28 The aforementioned data suggest that fractalkine and CX3CR1 have an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy, functioning as an arrest chemokine in monocyte/macrophage adhesion before migration into the kidney.
Positive_regulation (Upregulated) of Gene_expression (present) of fractalkine in kidney associated with chemokine, adhesions and diabetic nephropathy
10) Confidence 0.23 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 0.89 Pain Relevance 0.22
In addition, a CHD subgroup of patients suffering from multivessel disease with either two (496 ± 237 pg/mL) or three (429 ± 215 pg/mL) stenosed coronary arteries did not express significantly increased fractalkine levels after rehabilitation, as compared to patients with only one (507 ± 231 pg/mL) occluded coronary artery (P = 0.575).


Positive_regulation (increased) of Neg (not) Gene_expression (express) of fractalkine in coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease and disease
11) Confidence 0.21 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2762434 Disease Relevance 1.47 Pain Relevance 0.20
Furthermore, fractalkine and CX3CR1 mRNA overexpressions were associated with enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration.
Positive_regulation (overexpressions) of in macrophage Gene_expression (overexpressions) of fractalkine in lymphocyte
12) Confidence 0.19 Published 2009 Journal Lab. Invest. Section Abstract Doc Link 19153557 Disease Relevance 1.86 Pain Relevance 1.52
AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: We performed a Medline/PubMed search to detect all published studies that explored the role of fractalkine and CX3CR1 and the possibilities of therapeutic intervention in the fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis in a wide range of clinical disorders, using CX3CR1 blocking antibodies, different fractalkine antagonists, CX3CR1 depletion or transfection of fractalkine expression vectors.
Positive_regulation (transfection) of Gene_expression (expression) of fractalkine
13) Confidence 0.16 Published 2010 Journal Expert Opin. Ther. Targets Section Body Doc Link 20055718 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0

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