INT157720

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Context Info
Confidence 0.64
First Reported 2007
Last Reported 2010
Negated 1
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 15
Total Number 15
Disease Relevance 15.84
Pain Relevance 1.69

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Anatomy Link Frequency
blood 2
SGS 1
ADHD1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Central nervous system 15 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Dopamine 230 99.36 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 25 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 8 98.60 Very High Very High Very High
Neurotransmitter 63 93.28 High High
Neurobehavioral 24 89.92 High High
drug abuse 51 87.04 High High
antidepressant 22 86.72 High High
headache 26 86.12 High High
eye pain 1 85.72 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 2187 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 3 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Anxiety Disorder 95 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 9 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Autism 33 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
Manic Depressive Disorder 206 98.46 Very High Very High Very High
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder 5 98.16 Very High Very High Very High
Obesity 6 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
Adverse Drug Reaction 2 97.14 Very High Very High Very High
Sleep Disorders 36 97.08 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
One potential mechanism is suggested by the developmental hypothesis of Jeffrey Halperin, which proposed that ADHD is linked to an early-appearing and enduring subcortical dysfunction (weak arousal mechanisms), while symptom remission is dependent on the extent of maturational changes in executive control [61,62].
Localization (linked) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
1) Confidence 0.64 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 0.93 Pain Relevance 0.07
Guanfacine immediate release (GIR) is a nonstimulant adrenergic agonist commonly prescribed to control hypertension and has been also used for a number of years for the treatment of ADHD as an off-label alternative to stimulants, particularly in children and adolescent populations.80,81 The mechanism of action of guanfacine is largely attributed to its selective effects on ?
Localization (treatment) of ADHD associated with pressure and volume under development, agonist and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
2) Confidence 0.63 Published 2009 Journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management Section Body Doc Link PMC2697545 Disease Relevance 0.80 Pain Relevance 0.14
A consistent genetic marker has not been found, and neuroimaging studies have been unable to identify a distinctive etiology for ADHD.
Localization (etiology) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
3) Confidence 0.63 Published 2010 Journal Atten Defic Hyperact Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3000907 Disease Relevance 1.32 Pain Relevance 0.10
Long-acting preparations have a similar efficacy rate with greater convenience and compliance due to single daily dosing.32,55–59 In one study, once daily dosing of equipotent extended-release OROS MPH tablets (Concerta®) had similar efficacy to 3 times per day dosing of immediate-release MPH.59 In a double-blind trial of 401 adults with ADHD, those treated with OROS methylphenidate (18 mg, 36 mg, or 72 mg/day), demonstrated significant improvement in total symptom score as measured by Connor’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (mean change = ?
Localization (release) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
4) Confidence 0.59 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2732009 Disease Relevance 0.54 Pain Relevance 0.03
The multimodal approach includes:

• psycho-education of ADHD and comorbid disorders • pharmacotherapy for ADHD and comorbid disorders • coaching • cognitive behaviour psychotherapy (individual and group) • family therapy

Treatment focus in co-morbid ADHD

Localization (education) of ADHD associated with cognitive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
5) Confidence 0.56 Published 2010 Journal BMC Psychiatry Section Body Doc Link PMC2942810 Disease Relevance 1.29 Pain Relevance 0.03
A recent double-blind, multicenter trial supports the efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended release (GXR) for pediatric ADHD.
Localization (release) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
6) Confidence 0.36 Published 2008 Journal CNS Spectr Section Abstract Doc Link 19179940 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.04
Comings (2001) summarized the role of multiple genes in ADHD providing a polygenic model for the etiology of ADHD including the following salient points modified herein:


Localization (etiology) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
7) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2626918 Disease Relevance 0.91 Pain Relevance 0
What is the cause or basis of ADHD?
Localization (cause) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
8) Confidence 0.30 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2626918 Disease Relevance 1.17 Pain Relevance 0.41
Relations to other types of attention, and to ADHD
Localization (Relations) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
9) Confidence 0.29 Published 2007 Journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2525983 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.03
In addition, other researchers and clinicians have argued that a BP diagnosis may blind physicians to or mask the presence of disorders such as severe ADHD, CD, ODD, PTSD, PDD or some autism spectrum disorders.
Localization (severe) of ADHD associated with autism, post-traumatic stress disorder, manic depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
10) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health Section Body Doc Link PMC2846895 Disease Relevance 1.25 Pain Relevance 0
A specific cause of ADHD is not known.
Localization (cause) of ADHD associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
11) Confidence 0.17 Published 2010 Journal Interdisciplinary Toxicology Section Body Doc Link PMC2984125 Disease Relevance 1.08 Pain Relevance 0.07
Of the two children in the Enhanced Referral group (ages 4 and 16 years, both male, one Caucasian and one African American) one screened positive for ADHD alone and the other for generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, social anxiety, and manic depressive disorders.
Localization (screened) of ADHD associated with manic depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
12) Confidence 0.15 Published 2007 Journal BMC Emerg Med Section Body Doc Link PMC1978497 Disease Relevance 1.67 Pain Relevance 0.26
Other exclusion criteria included adverse reactions or lack of response to previous amphetamine therapy, concomitant medications affecting the central nervous system or blood pressure (with the exception of ADHD medications that were washed out), pregnancy or lactation, a body mass index < 18.5 and ?
Localization (medications) of ADHD in blood associated with adverse drug reaction, obesity, central nervous system and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
13) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2908054 Disease Relevance 1.35 Pain Relevance 0.09
Other exclusion criteria included adverse reactions or lack of response to previous amphetamine therapy, concomitant medications affecting the central nervous system or blood pressure (with the exception of ADHD medications that were washed out), pregnancy or lactation, a body mass index < 18.5 and ?
Neg (exception) Localization (exception) of ADHD in blood associated with adverse drug reaction, obesity, central nervous system and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
14) Confidence 0.14 Published 2010 Journal Behav Brain Funct Section Body Doc Link PMC2908054 Disease Relevance 1.36 Pain Relevance 0.09
AMPA (ampakines) receptor modulators (such as CX-717) are used as memory enhancer drugs and may be utilized in the future as beneficial anti-ADHD drugs.1,59,60 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists are also under current research as medication to enhance attentional dysfunction in ADHD patients.60–62 Dopamine agonists (such as ropinirole) are used to treat restless legs syndrome and have been shown to improve attention span.63–65 Atypical antipsychotics (such as aripiprazole and risperidone) are being researched as anti-ADHD drugs especially if there are co-morbidities present as conduct disorder or bipolar disorder.66,67 Studies are also evaluating the potential role of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (such as reboxetine mesylate) for ADHD management.68 Finally, GABA B receptor antagonists (such as SGS-742) are being studied as potential anti-ADHD drugs.60

Summary

Localization (dysfunction) of ADHD in SGS associated with dopamine, conduct disorder, gaba, manic depressive disorder, antagonist, agonist, noradrenaline, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders
15) Confidence 0.04 Published 2009 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2695228 Disease Relevance 1.10 Pain Relevance 0.34

General Comments

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