INT1590

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Context Info
Confidence 0.47
First Reported 1979
Last Reported 2005
Negated 0
Speculated 4
Reported most in Abstract
Documents 27
Total Number 31
Disease Relevance 2.99
Pain Relevance 12.81

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signal transduction (PENK) extracellular region (PENK)
Anatomy Link Frequency
brain 3
caudate nucleus 1
dentate gyrus 1
striatum 1
forebrain 1
PENK (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Enkephalin 111 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Neuropeptide 14 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Somatostatin 9 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 8 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Calcitonin gene-related peptide 4 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Immobilon 2 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid receptor 1 1 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opioid 15 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
mu opioid receptor 2 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
MU agonist 2 99.64 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Stress 9 98.72 Very High Very High Very High
Pheochromocytoma 3 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Breast Cancer 6 97.16 Very High Very High Very High
Affective Disorder 1 96.96 Very High Very High Very High
Deafness 5 93.48 High High
Congenital Anomalies 1 93.20 High High
Asthenozoospermia 2 91.28 High High
Aggression 1 87.76 High High
Death 2 87.48 High High
Disease 4 85.04 High High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Recombinant NUDR protein showed minimal binding affinity for proenkephalin promoter sequences, but was able to select DNA sequences from a random oligonucleotide library that had similar core-binding motifs (TTCG) as those recognized by DEAF-1.
proenkephalin Binding (affinity) of associated with deafness
1) Confidence 0.47 Published 1998 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9773984 Disease Relevance 0.22 Pain Relevance 0
Autoradiographs reveal a high level of specific hybridization to preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the monkey striatum and forebrain regions.
preproenkephalin Binding (hybridization) of in striatum
2) Confidence 0.37 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Specific hybridization to preproenkephalin messenger RNA is evident throughout the cortical mantle, primarily concentrated in layers 2 and 3.
preproenkephalin Binding (hybridization) of
3) Confidence 0.37 Published 1995 Journal Neuroscience Section Abstract Doc Link 7777158 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.10
However, Fos was not detected binding to the proenkephalin second messenger-inducible enhancer even in hypothalamic cell extracts from stressed animals.
proenkephalin Binding (binding) of
4) Confidence 0.36 Published 1994 Journal Mol. Endocrinol. Section Abstract Doc Link 8170480 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0
Northern blot analysis, using a single-stranded human proenkephalin A antisense probe (cRNA), revealed the existence of two different proenkephalin A-like sequences in the human caudate nucleus and pheochromocytoma RNA extracts of approximately 1400 and 1000 nucleotides in length respectively, whereas no specific RNA bands could be detected in the cortex and only the 1400 nucleotide band was present in the cerebellum.
proenkephalin A Binding (existence) of in caudate nucleus associated with pheochromocytoma
5) Confidence 0.36 Published 1988 Journal Biosci. Rep. Section Abstract Doc Link 3207862 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0.05
The DNA binding activity to the AP-1-like sites of the GFAP and proenkephalin genes was examined in these cultures.
proenkephalin Binding (activity) of
6) Confidence 0.36 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8738155 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.08
Microheterogeneity of proenkephalin was also observed using isoelectric focusing coupled with western blotting.
proenkephalin Binding (Microheterogeneity) of
7) Confidence 0.36 Published 1992 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 1729392 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
In glial cultures, no binding occurred to the proenkephalin AP-1-like element but a CREB-immunoreactive complex recognized this sequence in the mixed cultures.
proenkephalin Binding (occurred) of
8) Confidence 0.36 Published 1996 Journal Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 8738155 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
In this study we investigated two polymorphisms located in the genes that code for CRH and PENK by means of association and linkage analyses.
PENK Spec (analyses) Binding (code) of
9) Confidence 0.36 Published 2000 Journal Am. J. Med. Genet. Section Abstract Doc Link 10893493 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.04
The hairpin that forms from the top strand of the enhancer and contains two GT mispaired bases creates an alternative binding site for the cyclic adenosine monophosphate element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor that binds to and regulates the human proenkephalin gene.
proenkephalin gene Binding (binds) of associated with adenocard
10) Confidence 0.35 Published 1994 Journal Biochemistry Section Abstract Doc Link 7918415 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
Dynorphin A((1-17)) is produced by proteolytic processing of prodynorphin, and processing of proenkephalin yields the enkephalin peptides.
enkephalin Binding (yields) of associated with dynorphin and enkephalin
11) Confidence 0.35 Published 2004 Journal Brain Res. Bull. Section Abstract Doc Link 15130700 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.29
The nerve fibers that supply the external muscle of the human gastrointestinal tract were examined for their immunoreactivity to the neuropeptides enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide, for tyrosine hydroxylase (a catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme), and for coexistence between immunoreactivities in nerve fibers.
enkephalin Spec (examined) Binding (immunoreactivity) of in nerve associated with catecholamine, somatostatin, neuropeptide, enkephalin and substance p
12) Confidence 0.31 Published 1988 Journal Gastroenterology Section Abstract Doc Link 2453391 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.51
The Eu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-[D-Pen(2),l-Cys(5)] enkephalin (DPLCE) ligand bound to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing the human delta-opioid receptor with affinity similar to the unlabeled ligand.
enkephalin Binding (bound) of in ovary associated with opioid receptor and enkephalin
13) Confidence 0.28 Published 2005 Journal Anal. Biochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 16004955 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.23
The discovery of opioid receptors and endogenous substances capable of specific binding to these receptors, i.e. endorphin and enkephalin, is one of the most spectacular indications suggesting that the presence of a receptor for a certain drug in the organism authenticates searching for an endogenous substances with high affinity at this receptor.
enkephalin Binding (binding) of associated with enkephalin and opioid receptor
14) Confidence 0.21 Published 1998 Journal Pol J Pharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 10385921 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.15
SO demonstrated immunoreactivity for VIP, PHI (PHM), neuropeptide Y, CGRP, galanin, somatostatin, substance P, and enkephalin, but no immunoreactivity was observed for bombesin.
enkephalin Binding (immunoreactivity) of associated with somatostatin, neuropeptide, enkephalin, substance p and calcitonin gene-related peptide
15) Confidence 0.19 Published 1994 Journal Dig. Dis. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 8313811 Disease Relevance 0.55 Pain Relevance 0.84
Marked reductions in the levels of enkephalin mRNA and mu opiate receptor binding were found in the caudate and putamen, concomitant with elevations in levels of dynorphin mRNA and kappa opiate receptor binding in the putamen and caudate, respectively.
enkephalin mRNA Binding (binding) of in putamen associated with dynorphin, opioid receptor 1, opiate and enkephalin
16) Confidence 0.18 Published 1993 Journal Synapse Section Abstract Doc Link 7683144 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.98
Sodium ion at physiological concentrations decreases substantially the binding of enkephalins but only slightly decreases endorphin binding, whereas manganese enhances enkephalin binding but has no effect on endorphin binding.
enkephalin Binding (binding) of associated with enkephalin
17) Confidence 0.18 Published 1979 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 217869 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.87
These results suggest that beta-endorphin and enkephalin bind differently to the same receptor or bind to different receptors with overlapping specificity.
enkephalin Binding (bind) of associated with enkephalin
18) Confidence 0.18 Published 1979 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 217869 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.82
However, the effects of various cations on the binding of 125I-[D-Ala2]beta-endorphin are markedly different from those found for enkephalin binding.
enkephalin Binding (binding) of associated with enkephalin
19) Confidence 0.18 Published 1979 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 217869 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.86
These results suggest that beta-endorphin and enkephalin bind differently to the same receptor or bind to different receptors with overlapping specificity.
enkephalin Binding (bind) of associated with enkephalin
20) Confidence 0.18 Published 1979 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 217869 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.82

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