INT16166

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Context Info
Confidence 0.67
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2011
Negated 5
Speculated 9
Reported most in Body
Documents 348
Total Number 359
Disease Relevance 133.22
Pain Relevance 15.06

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (DMD) cytoskeleton (DMD) nucleus (DMD)
cytoplasm (DMD)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spine 63
hip 57
neck 30
femur 6
spinal 5
DMD (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Pain 880 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 202 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
cINOD 160 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 439 99.16 Very High Very High Very High
transdermal 269 99.10 Very High Very High Very High
headache 825 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
backache 301 98.48 Very High Very High Very High
cva 572 97.80 Very High Very High Very High
spinal inflammation 85 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 577 97.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Osteoporosis 14311 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Myalgia 79 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Disease 1775 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Experimental Arthritis 130 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Hypercalcemia 3415 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hip Fractures 1301 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoporotic Fractures 1031 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Postmenopausal Osteoporosis 1491 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Muscular Dystrophy 567 99.42 Very High Very High Very High
Stroke 555 99.38 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
These mesangioblasts have proven in the GRMD model that they are able to restore dystrophin to the skeletal muscle [78].
Positive_regulation (restore) of dystrophin in skeletal muscle associated with muscular dystrophy
1) Confidence 0.67 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.37 Pain Relevance 0
Muscle biopsy specimens showed myopathic changes, rimmed vacuoles, and accumulation of desmin, dystrophin, and other proteins.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of dystrophin in Muscle
2) Confidence 0.67 Published 1999 Journal Ann. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 10970245 Disease Relevance 1.13 Pain Relevance 0.09
Rubin et al. [25] and Torvinen et al. [3] speculated that a population with osteopenia or osteoporosis could obtain greater increases of BMD due to low baseline scores.
Positive_regulation (increases) of BMD associated with osteoporosis
3) Confidence 0.58 Published 2006 Journal BMC Musculoskelet Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC1693558 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0
Does this represent a true increase in BMD or a spurious effect resulting from the remodelling of the intervertebral disc, with likely secondary changes in the vertebral endplate6?
Positive_regulation (increase) of BMD in intervertebral disc
4) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC3002767 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.06
Although many studies agree on the significance of such risk factors, the quantitative effect of the majority of them has been found to be very small, even insignificant.7–9 However, there is a well established major genetic component underlying variation in LDD10–12 and bone mineral density (BMD).13–15 It may be that people who develop OA/LDD have an underlying predisposition to increased BMD at all skeletal sites.
Positive_regulation (increased) of BMD associated with disease and osteoarthritis
5) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC3002767 Disease Relevance 1.07 Pain Relevance 0.19
The largest increases in BMD occurred in the group that took ibuprofen after exercise.
Positive_regulation (increases) of BMD
6) Confidence 0.55 Published 2010 Journal J. Bone Miner. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 20200939 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
In a randomized study, it was shown that one year of brisk walking significantly increased calcaneal BMD and slightly increased spine BMD, although not significantly [20].
Positive_regulation (increased) of BMD in spine
7) Confidence 0.53 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
These results support walking as an effective method of increasing BMD and confirm that a brisk and fast walking pace may, in addition to femoral BMD, also benefit calcaneus and forearm BMD.
Positive_regulation (increasing) of BMD in forearm
8) Confidence 0.53 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The results suggest that the vibration could be an easier approach to increase BMD at the femoral neck than walking and could be applied to provide a surrogate for suppressed bone loss of hip after menopause.
Positive_regulation (increase) of BMD in neck associated with endometriosis (extended)
9) Confidence 0.53 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
In a randomized study, it was shown that one year of brisk walking significantly increased calcaneal BMD and slightly increased spine BMD, although not significantly [20].
Positive_regulation (increased) of BMD in spine
10) Confidence 0.53 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Studies show that it may increase femoral neck BMD in postmenopausal women and in lower-weight women, in addition to inhibiting bone loss after menopause.
Spec (may) Positive_regulation (increase) of BMD in neck associated with endometriosis (extended)
11) Confidence 0.53 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0.77 Pain Relevance 0
Sarcolemmal colocalisation of dystrophin with other proteins of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (webappendix) suggested that dystrophin interacted with other members of this protein complex and was therefore presumed to be functional.
Positive_regulation (presumed) of dystrophin
12) Confidence 0.49 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Systemic myostatin inhibition led to increased skeletal muscle mass and strength in control C57 Bl/6 mice and in the dystrophin-deficient mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Positive_regulation (increased) of dystrophin in skeletal muscle associated with muscular dystrophy
13) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2820101 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0
There was no induction of anti-dystrophin antibodies after treatment with the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer, although two patients (patient one and patient six) had low levels of cross reactivity with dystrophin in their pre-treatment and post-treatment serum samples (not shown).
Neg (no) Positive_regulation (induction) of dystrophin
14) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.09
Nevertheless, if the increases in dystrophin concentration that we observed along the needle track were achieved after systemic delivery, then this might lead to a clinically significant response.
Positive_regulation (increases) of dystrophin
15) Confidence 0.45 Published 2009 Journal Lancet Neurol Section Body Doc Link PMC2755039 Disease Relevance 0.12 Pain Relevance 0
Our results indicate that when highly overexpressed in skeletal muscle, myotubularin alters membrane homeostasis leading to the formation of packed membrane assemblies close to the sarcolemma and of vacuoles that are positive for dystrophin, caveolin-3 and DHPR?
Positive_regulation (positive) of dystrophin in skeletal muscle
16) Confidence 0.45 Published 2008 Journal Human Molecular Genetics Section Body Doc Link PMC2441725 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Certainly if dystrophin is restored in around 50% of the mdx cardiomyocytes this is able to completely prevent the stress-induced cardiomyopathy and cause the return to a normal left ventricular function [55].
Positive_regulation (restored) of dystrophin in cardiomyocytes associated with stress and cardiomyopathy
17) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0
Unfortunately, although dystrophin could be restored in the skeletal muscles it was not detectable in the heart [84].
Positive_regulation (restored) of dystrophin in heart
18) Confidence 0.45 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0
At the end of the study, in groups A (1.2 +/- 0.5%) and B (1.1 +/- 0.4%) the percentage increase in the FN BMD was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in group C (0.6 +/- 0.5%).
Positive_regulation (increase) of BMD
19) Confidence 0.45 Published 2003 Journal Ann. Ital. Med. Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 12886826 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0.06
Preliminary analysis of LDD traits and LDD summary score showed significant correlations with age, weight and exercise, lumbar spine BMD and hip BMD (table 2, third column for each covariate, unadjusted R) and linear regression coefficients with BMD confirmed continuous and consistent increase of BMD measures as LDD increases (figure 1).
Positive_regulation (increase) of BMD in hip associated with disease
20) Confidence 0.41 Published 2010 Journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases Section Body Doc Link PMC3002767 Disease Relevance 0.83 Pain Relevance 0

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