INT16167

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Context Info
Confidence 0.57
First Reported 1991
Last Reported 2011
Negated 5
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 186
Total Number 191
Disease Relevance 108.71
Pain Relevance 15.25

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (DMD) cytoskeleton (DMD) nucleus (DMD)
cytoplasm (DMD)
Anatomy Link Frequency
spine 16
hip 15
neck 10
body 8
radius 5
DMD (Homo sapiens)
DMD - S268P (1)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
spinal inflammation 551 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
fibrosis 525 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Facet joint 54 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
rheumatoid arthritis 375 99.02 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 296 98.74 Very High Very High Very High
palliative 3 98.46 Very High Very High Very High
Potency 86 98.32 Very High Very High Very High
cva 164 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Arthritis 96 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 109 97.56 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 1112 99.90 Very High Very High Very High
Low Back Pain 636 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoporosis 5810 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Or Hiv Infection 653 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 256 99.82 Very High Very High Very High
Infection 210 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Sclerosis 12 99.76 Very High Very High Very High
Death 147 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 115 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Cystic Fibrosis 330 99.68 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A colony of cats that are deficient in dystrophin have been identified [68, 69].
Negative_regulation (deficient) of dystrophin
1) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.52 Pain Relevance 0.10
Utrophin is upregulated in the mdx mouse and its expression is located around the sarcolemma suggesting that it may partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin and perhaps to some extent explains the milder phenotype of the mdx mouse.
Negative_regulation (loss) of dystrophin
2) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.07
As with skeletal muscle the loss of dystrophin and the disruption of the DGC (Fig. 1) results in the sarcolemma of the cardiomyocyte becoming more fragile and susceptible to damage from muscle contractions, leading to small tears in the cardiomyocyte membrane.
Negative_regulation (loss) of dystrophin in cardiomyocyte
3) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 0.81 Pain Relevance 0.03
The mdx mouse like the DMD patient has a complete loss of dystrophin from the cardiomyocytes.
Negative_regulation (loss) of dystrophin in cardiomyocytes associated with muscular dystrophy
4) Confidence 0.57 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Body Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.60 Pain Relevance 0.10
Typical changes associated with dystrophin deficiency in cats were also noted.
Negative_regulation (deficiency) of dystrophin
5) Confidence 0.57 Published 1998 Journal Vet. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9539365 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.11
Human osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in BMD of more than 2.5 SD, which is approximately 25%.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of BMD associated with osteoporosis
6) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.11
In our study, isolated OVX for 10 weeks did not induce adequate reduction of the BMD.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of BMD
7) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.35 Pain Relevance 0.11
In this study, OVX+MP induced a decrease in BMD of about 36%.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of BMD
8) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.08
Compared to the sham control, a significant reduction in BMD was seen in the OVX+MP group 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and 10 weeks (p < 0.001) after surgery, and BMD at the end of the experiment was reduced by 36% from baseline.
Negative_regulation (reduction) of BMD
9) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
To our knowledge, no authors have reported an adequate reduction in BMD in rabbits according to the WHO criteria for osteoporosis in humans (Lill et al. 2002).
Negative_regulation (reduction) of BMD associated with osteoporosis
10) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.11
Compared to the sham control, a significant reduction in BMD was seen in the OVX+MP group 6 weeks (p < 0.05) and 10 weeks (p < 0.001) after surgery, and BMD at the end of the experiment was reduced by 36% from baseline.
Negative_regulation (reduced) of BMD
11) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal Acta Orthopaedica Section Body Doc Link PMC2876847 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
Even in the chronic stroke population, AEX maintained the femoral neck BMD, while a significant reduction in BMD was observed in controls [32].
Negative_regulation (reduction) of BMD in neck associated with stroke
12) Confidence 0.44 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Similarly, a 2-year brisk walking regimen significantly reduced loss of BMD at femoral neck, but there was no difference at the spine BMD [22].
Negative_regulation (loss) of BMD in spine
13) Confidence 0.44 Published 2011 Journal Journal of Aging Research Section Body Doc Link PMC3022164 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The absence of dystrophin leads to muscle membrane fragility, muscle death (necrosis) and eventual replacement of skeletal muscle by fat and fibrous connective tissue.
Negative_regulation (absence) of dystrophin in muscle associated with necrosis and death
14) Confidence 0.42 Published 2007 Journal Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. Section Abstract Doc Link 17137828 Disease Relevance 0.85 Pain Relevance 0.06
Three cats affected with dystrophin deficiency and hypertrophic muscular dystrophy developed peracute rhabdomyolysis with a fatal outcome.
Negative_regulation (deficiency) of dystrophin associated with rhabdomyolysis and frailty
15) Confidence 0.42 Published 1998 Journal Vet. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9539365 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0.12
Rhabdomyolysis has been reported in dystrophinopathic humans but not in other animal models of dystrophin deficiency.
Negative_regulation (deficiency) of dystrophin associated with rhabdomyolysis
16) Confidence 0.42 Published 1998 Journal Vet. Pathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 9539365 Disease Relevance 0.64 Pain Relevance 0.07
The cause of the cardiomyocyte death is due to the loss of dystrophin, this makes the sarcolemma more susceptible to damage, and leads to a cascade of calcium influx, calcium activated proteases and ultimately the death of the cardiomyocyte.
Negative_regulation (loss) of dystrophin in cardiomyocyte associated with death
17) Confidence 0.42 Published 2010 Journal The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3024556 Disease Relevance 1.30 Pain Relevance 0
Each of these general approaches to slowing the pathology of dystrophin deficiency has yielded encouragement and suggests that targeting downstream events in dystrophinopathy can yield worthwhile, functional improvements in DMD.
Negative_regulation (deficiency) of dystrophin associated with muscular dystrophy
18) Confidence 0.42 Published 2004 Journal Pediatr. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15531741 Disease Relevance 0.62 Pain Relevance 0.04
Our data demonstrate that compliance to parenteral CLD is satisfactory and that this drug reduces bone turnover, increases the L1-L4 BMD and decreases the FN BMD loss.
Negative_regulation (loss) of BMD
19) Confidence 0.42 Published 2003 Journal Ann. Ital. Med. Int. Section Abstract Doc Link 12886826 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.09
Although gene therapy will likely provide the cure for DMD, it remains on the distant horizon, emphasizing the need for more rapid development of palliative treatments that build on improved understanding of the complex pathology of dystrophin deficiency.
Negative_regulation (deficiency) of dystrophin associated with muscular dystrophy and palliative
20) Confidence 0.42 Published 2004 Journal Pediatr. Res. Section Abstract Doc Link 15531741 Disease Relevance 0.72 Pain Relevance 0.10

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