INT162957

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Context Info
Confidence 0.35
First Reported 2006
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 1
Reported most in Body
Documents 5
Total Number 14
Disease Relevance 4.83
Pain Relevance 2.77

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytoplasm (STON1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
STN 2
STN 2
thalamus 1
STON1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
deep brain stimulation 587 99.62 Very High Very High Very High
Thalamus 291 96.52 Very High Very High Very High
depression 41 96.36 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 5 95.16 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 4 94.68 High High
Neurotransmitter 28 94.44 High High
medulla 11 91.28 High High
palliative 18 89.68 High High
imagery 24 88.48 High High
Dopamine 94 87.32 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Disease 760 99.88 Very High Very High Very High
Hypokinesia 52 99.70 Very High Very High Very High
Parkinson's Disease 257 97.68 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 46 96.36 Very High Very High Very High
Tremor 108 94.48 High High
Cognitive Disorder 60 92.64 High High
Nociception 6 85.04 High High
Convulsion 29 83.68 Quite High
Toxicity 3 73.44 Quite High
Lateral Medullary Syndrome 2 72.76 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A region-of-interest approach analyzed local activation in the STN.
Spec (analyzed) Positive_regulation (activation) of STN in STN
1) Confidence 0.35 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19756824 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.23
Heat evoked significant bilateral activation in the STN (P < 0.01, T > 2.8).
Positive_regulation (activation) of STN in STN
2) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal J. Neurol. Section Abstract Doc Link 19756824 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0.23
Increasing the STN to GPe coupling produced a range of behaviours from sparse irregular firing, to episodic bursting, to continuous firing.
Positive_regulation (Increasing) of STN
3) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
To better deal with the bradykinesia and rigidity, stimulation of the GPi and STN became the preferred targets.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN associated with hypokinesia
4) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.84 Pain Relevance 0.40
In this static model, a decrease in inhibition to the striatum led to an increased activity of the STN, which increased excitation to the GPe and GPi, which increased the inhibition to the thalamus.
Positive_regulation (increased) of STN in thalamus associated with thalamus
5) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0.12
So, if increasing the frequency of GPi activity through stimulation of the STN had the same effect as burning a hole in the GPi, the reason had to lie in the dynamics of the effect of increasing the firing rate of the GPi.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN
6) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.21
We have evidence of excessive activity of the GPi in Parkinson’s disease, but stimulation of the STN should further increase the GPi activity.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN associated with disease
7) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.33 Pain Relevance 0.17
As our experience with DBS has progressed, a direct comparison of pharmacological versus DBS (bilateral GPi or STN stimulation) for Parkinson’s disease found DBS to have advantages in quality-of-life outcomes in comparison with pharmacological therapy, despite the risks inherent in surgical treatment (Deuschl et al. 2006; Weaver et al. 2009).
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN associated with deep brain stimulation and disease
8) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.71 Pain Relevance 0.40
In the sparse random network (figure 4a), the strength of connectivity (maximal synaptic conductance) was varied from the STN to GPe, and within the GPe to GPe network.
Positive_regulation (varied) of STN
9) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
DBS of the GPi or STN has almost identical effects on the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease as do lesions of the GPi or STN.
Positive_regulation (lesions) of STN associated with deep brain stimulation and disease
10) Confidence 0.13 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.39 Pain Relevance 0.17
An error index can be created as

Rubin & Terman (2004) showed that the error rate was significantly elevated in the Parkinsonian3 state in comparison with the normal state, and that the error rate could be normalized by simulating DBS using a constant level of high-frequency stimulation of the STN.

Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN associated with deep brain stimulation
11) Confidence 0.12 Published 2010 Journal Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences Section Body Doc Link PMC2944387 Disease Relevance 0.25 Pain Relevance 0.09
This explanation is corroborated to some extent by animal models of PD in which there is increased basal spontaneous activity in the STN that drives GPi nucleus inhibitory outflow.
Positive_regulation (increased) of STN in STN associated with disease
12) Confidence 0.06 Published 2006 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2671781 Disease Relevance 0.43 Pain Relevance 0.31
Similarly, the finding of Devos et al. (2006) that stimulation of the STN also normalizes abnormally reduced and delayed motor-related oscillatory activity in PD can be interpreted in terms of a normalization of motor functions.
Positive_regulation (stimulation) of STN associated with disease
13) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal Frontiers in Neuroscience Section Body Doc Link PMC2570064 Disease Relevance 0.40 Pain Relevance 0.12
Several studies have demonstrated that the neuronal activity is increased in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and in the internal segment of globus pallidum (GPi) of parkinsonian animals and humans (Obeso et al 2000a).
Positive_regulation (increased) of STN in STN associated with parkinson's disease
14) Confidence 0.02 Published 2008 Journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment Section Body Doc Link PMC2536542 Disease Relevance 0.50 Pain Relevance 0.33

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