INT163581

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Context Info
Confidence 0.79
First Reported 2007
Last Reported 2011
Negated 1
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 27
Total Number 30
Disease Relevance 18.99
Pain Relevance 4.08

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

signal transduction (Lep) extracellular space (Lep) extracellular region (Lep)
intracellular (Lep) lipid metabolic process (Lep)
Anatomy Link Frequency
adipose tissue 4
body 3
blood 2
thyroid 2
adipocytes 2
Lep (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 180 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Cholecystokinin 96 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
nMDA receptor 224 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
long-term potentiation 119 99.60 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 217 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hippocampus 70 97.34 Very High Very High Very High
melanocortin 1 receptor 3 94.16 High High
Inflammation 163 93.36 High High
tolerance 34 91.92 High High
adenocard 1 89.52 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Obesity 786 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 28 99.56 Very High Very High Very High
Autoimmune Disease 16 99.38 Very High Very High Very High
Hypercapnia 10 99.34 Very High Very High Very High
Atherosclerosis 37 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Osteoarthritis 178 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 65 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Body Weight 103 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Cardiovascular Disease 12 97.60 Very High Very High Very High
Pressure And Volume Under Development 35 96.52 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Beyond linking two secreted molecules, i.e., leptin and osteocalcin, these observations establish that the metabolic connection between osteoblasts and adipocytes is tighter than originally thought (Karsenty, 2006; Rosen, 2008).
Localization (secreted) of leptin in adipocytes associated with obesity
1) Confidence 0.79 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0
Numerous proinflammatory cytokines that are secreted from hypertrophic abdominal adipose tissue (that is, adipokines or cytokines such as leptin, TNF?
Localization (secreted) of leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity and cytokine
2) Confidence 0.79 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2945020 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0.44
Moreover, in addition to crossing the blood–brain barrier, there is also evidence that leptin mRNA is expressed in a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus (Morash et al., 1999), suggesting that the actual concentration of leptin reaching hippocampal synapses may be derived from locally released leptin as well as leptin within the cerebrospinal fluid.
Localization (released) of leptin in blood associated with hippocampus
3) Confidence 0.76 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.27
Moreover, in addition to crossing the blood–brain barrier, there is also evidence that leptin mRNA is expressed in a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus (Morash et al., 1999), suggesting that the actual concentration of leptin reaching hippocampal synapses may be derived from locally released leptin as well as leptin within the cerebrospinal fluid.
Localization (released) of leptin in blood associated with hippocampus
4) Confidence 0.76 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.28
Moreover, during the induction phase of LTP, it is likely that leptin released from adipocytes enters the brain and acts in concert with locally derived leptin to increase the likelihood of LTP at CA1 synapses by promoting rapid changes in hippocampal dendritic morphology.
Localization (released) of leptin in synapses associated with obesity and long-term potentiation
5) Confidence 0.76 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0.26
Given the pleiotropic effects of leptin in regulating appetite, skeletal metabolism, fertility, and many other physiologic functions, however, targeting leptin directly may prove overly complex as an osteoarthritis therapy.
Localization (targeting) of leptin associated with osteoarthritis
6) Confidence 0.74 Published 2010 Journal Arthritis Res Ther Section Body Doc Link PMC2945020 Disease Relevance 1.88 Pain Relevance 0.58
In the absence of leptin, the density of filopodia was generally low, with on average between 2 and 9 filopodia (mean 2.58 ± 0.14; n = 129) detected on 50 ?
Neg (absence) Localization (absence) of leptin
7) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
M; 30 min) reversed the actions of leptin, such that in the presence of D-APV, leptin (50 nM; 30 min) significantly reduced the mean number of filopodia extending from dendritic processes to 1.35 ± 0.41 (n = 9; P < 0.05; Figs. 4B, D).
Localization (presence) of leptin
8) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.28
Application of leptin (50 nM) resulted in a rapid (within 3–6 min) increase in both the number of filopodia extending from processes (mean density of 17.9 ±4.4; n = 16; P < 0.05) and the motility of these extensions (mean motility of 1.9 ± 0.26 ?
Localization (Application) of leptin
9) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, as the leptin-induced formation of dendritic filopodia is dependent on the activation of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors, the effects of leptin on the localization of NR2A subunits was also examined.
Localization (localization) of leptin associated with nmda receptor
10) Confidence 0.71 Published 2007 Journal Mol Cell Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC1995039 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.27
In fact, both ob/ob mice (lacking leptin secretion) and db/db mice (lacking leptin receptor) are not only obese but they also show the immune/endocrine deficiencies observed during starvation [5, 7].
Localization (secretion) of leptin associated with starvation and obesity
11) Confidence 0.70 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2846344 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.07
In this study, we show that leptin, which instead inhibits insulin secretion, partly uses the sympathetic nervous system to fulfill this function.
Localization (secretion) of leptin in sympathetic nervous system
12) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
When using WT islets cultured in low or high glucose concentration, we failed to observe a decrease in the amount of insulin secreted in the medium after leptin treatment.
Localization (secreted) of leptin
13) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.51 Pain Relevance 0
To avoid the confounding issue of insulin resistance, we analyzed insulin secretion in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice at birth and 1 and 2 wk of age because at those ages body weight, abdominal and total fat mass, triglyceride level, and insulin sensitivity are not altered by the absence of leptin (Fig. 1 A and Fig.
Spec (analyzed) Localization (secretion) of leptin-deficient in body associated with body weight and insulin resistance
14) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0
In contrast, leptin did decrease insulin secretion by ob/ob islets (Fig. 1, L and M).
Localization (secretion) of leptin
15) Confidence 0.70 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.49 Pain Relevance 0
To avoid the confounding issue of insulin resistance, we analyzed insulin secretion in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice at birth and 1 and 2 wk of age because at those ages body weight, abdominal and total fat mass, triglyceride level, and insulin sensitivity are not altered by the absence of leptin (Fig. 1 A and Fig.
Spec (analyzed) Localization (secretion) of ob in body associated with body weight and insulin resistance
16) Confidence 0.69 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Cell Biology Section Body Doc Link PMC2606962 Disease Relevance 0.65 Pain Relevance 0
Leptin is one of the most important hormones secreted by adipose tissue [2] and its implication in energetic homeostasis at central level has been largely described [3].
Localization (secreted) of Leptin in adipose tissue associated with obesity
17) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2846344 Disease Relevance 0.52 Pain Relevance 0.09
Even though these effects of leptin decrease are aimed to improve the survival chances under starving conditions, the fall in leptin levels may lead to immune suppression [5], in addition to other neuroendocrine alterations affecting adrenal, thyroid, and sexual/reproductive function [6].
Localization (decrease) of leptin in thyroid
18) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2846344 Disease Relevance 0.58 Pain Relevance 0.09
In fact, both ob/ob mice (lacking leptin secretion) and db/db mice (lacking leptin receptor) are not only obese but they also show the immune/endocrine deficiencies observed during starvation [5, 7].
Localization (secretion) of leptin associated with starvation and obesity
19) Confidence 0.66 Published 2010 Journal Mediators of Inflammation Section Body Doc Link PMC2846344 Disease Relevance 0.42 Pain Relevance 0.07
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice received intraperitoneal injection of leptin or fluoxetine.
Localization (injection) of leptin
20) Confidence 0.65 Published 2010 Journal Psychopharmacology (Berl.) Section Body Doc Link 19823809 Disease Relevance 0.18 Pain Relevance 0

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