INT16455

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Context Info
Confidence 0.78
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 6
Speculated 3
Reported most in Body
Documents 116
Total Number 119
Disease Relevance 22.71
Pain Relevance 38.47

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

pigmentation (Drd2) signal transduction (Drd2) plasma membrane (Drd2)
signal transducer activity (Drd2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
neurons 36
striatum 8
NAc 4
shell 3
brain 3
Drd2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Dopamine 2414 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
dopamine receptor 242 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
agonist 239 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Enkephalin 221 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 201 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
substance P 190 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Nucleus accumbens 599 99.98 Very High Very High Very High
Dynorphin 165 99.92 Very High Very High Very High
GABAergic 249 99.84 Very High Very High Very High
projection neuron 82 99.74 Very High Very High Very High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Targeted Disruption 1196 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Sprains And Strains 452 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Prolactinoma 126 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
Depression 48 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Ocular Toxicity (including Many Sub-types) 22 99.44 Very High Very High Very High
Alcohol Addiction 301 99.00 Very High Very High Very High
Opiate Addiction 4 98.64 Very High Very High Very High
Dislocations 5 98.52 Very High Very High Very High
Cancer 102 98.00 Very High Very High Very High
Drug Dependence 31 97.24 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Extracellular DA levels were measured in the striatum of mice lacking D2R expression (D2R-/-) by in vivo microdialysis after administration of the psychostimulant cocaine and the opioid morphine.
Neg (lacking) Gene_expression (expression) of D2R in striatum associated with dopamine, opioid, morphine and cocaine
1) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11943831 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.68
Extracellular DA levels were measured in the striatum of mice lacking D2R expression (D2R-/-) by in vivo microdialysis after administration of the psychostimulant cocaine and the opioid morphine.
Neg (lacking) Gene_expression (expression) of D2R in striatum associated with dopamine, opioid, morphine and cocaine
2) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11943831 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.68
Thus, deregulated expression of D2R isoforms might be involved in the vulnerability of an individual to drug abuse.
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R associated with drug abuse
3) Confidence 0.78 Published 2002 Journal J. Neurosci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11943831 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.80
As previously mentioned, early studies put forward the concept of a differential expression of the D1R and D2R in the two MSN populations (Gerfen et al., 1990; Le Moine and Bloch, 1995).
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R
4) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
The hypothesis of a segregated expression of D1R and D2R in the distinct populations of striatal projection neurons was initially suggested by indirect evidence (Beckstead, 1988) and subsequently shown by retrograde tracing (Gerfen et al., 1990).
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R in projection neurons associated with projection neuron
5) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.50
Further studies are clearly warranted to determine how the specificity of D1R and D2R expression, as well as that of other genes, is controlled in the two populations of striatal MSNs during development.
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R
6) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.12
The lack of ERK activation in neurons expressing D2R may result from a negative effect of D2R on ERK activation, since pharmacological blockade of D2Rs by haloperidol or raclopride selectively activates ERK and induces histone H3 phosphorylation in D2R-expressing striatopallidal MSNs in the dorsal striatum (Bertran-Gonzalez et al., 2008, 2009).
Gene_expression (expressing) of D2R in striatum
7) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.32
Intriguingly, in all studies using drd1a- and drd2-EGFP mice, ERK activation was never observed in striatopallidal MSNs, not even in the NAc shell, where the calculated D1R/D2R co-expression levels were higher.
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R in shell associated with nucleus accumbens
8) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0.13 Pain Relevance 0.33
These observations, which are also supported by double retrograde-tracing experiments in rats (Castle et al., 2005), suggest that either some of the D1R-striatonigral neurons give off collaterals to the LGP, or that these terminals arise from the few neurons that express both D1R and D2R.
Gene_expression (express) of D2R in neurons
9) Confidence 0.78 Published 2010 Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Section Body Doc Link PMC2955397 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.13
These results implied that either the fluorescent protein expression was too low to be detected in a large proportion of the neurons for some technical reason, or that a substantial number of MSNs did not express D1R or D2R.
Neg (not) Gene_expression (express) of D2R in neurons
10) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.17 Pain Relevance 0
The precise analysis of BAC transgenic mouse lines shows that 100% of the MSNs express D1R or D2R or in a minority of cases both.
Gene_expression (express) of D2R associated with targeted disruption
11) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.19 Pain Relevance 0
Many studies in the last 20 years have attempted to quantify the proportion of MSNs expressing D1R, D2R or both by using various approaches [7], [38]–[40].
Gene_expression (expressing) of D2R
12) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0.25
Alternatively, they could indicate the existence of a population of MSNs expressing neither D1R nor D2R.
Neg (neither) Gene_expression (expressing) of D2R
13) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0
It is important to note that weakly labeled neurons corresponded to D1R-expressing neurons, whereas intensely labeled neurons could correspond to neurons expressing either D2R alone or both D1R and D2R.
Gene_expression (expressing) of D2R in neurons
14) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.09
These observations demonstrate that striatonigral neurons all express D1R and that only a very tiny fraction may also express D2R.
Gene_expression (express) of D2R in neurons
15) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.03
Having demonstrated that all MSNs express D1R or/and D2R, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer locally injected into the SNr to determine which population of neurons projected to the SNr.
Gene_expression (express) of D2R in neurons
16) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0.07
However, some results have suggested the existence of a fairly high degree of overlap between the expression of D1R and D2R [32].
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R
17) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0.25
However, the only previous study which examined whether all the MSNs express either D1R or D2R, concluded that an important fraction of MSNs (39–50%) did not express fluorescent proteins in BAC transgenic mice with drd1a and drd2 promoters [21].
Spec (whether) Gene_expression (express) of D2R associated with targeted disruption
18) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0.19
Such measurement requires the expression of markers for D1R and D2R in the same animal.
Gene_expression (expression) of D2R
19) Confidence 0.76 Published 2009 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2651623 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.13
While abnormal serotonin signaling is not sufficient to generate the depressive behaviors, increasing D2r expression by chronic fluoxetine (Prozac) treatment or adenoassociated virus type2 (AAV2) mediated expression of Rxrgamma or D2r in the NAc of Rxrgamma(-/-) mice normalizes depressive-like behaviors in Rxrgamma(-/-) animals.
Gene_expression (expression) of D2r in NAc associated with nucleus accumbens, depression, serotonin and fluoxetine
20) Confidence 0.75 Published 2010 Journal Neuron Section Abstract Doc Link 20620876 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.54

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