INT16608

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Context Info
Confidence 0.37
First Reported 1983
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 40
Total Number 44
Disease Relevance 18.48
Pain Relevance 3.59

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

small molecule metabolic process (FFAR1) plasma membrane (FFAR1) signal transducer activity (FFAR1)
Anatomy Link Frequency
plasma 11
skeletal muscle 4
fat 4
brain 2
cerebral hemispheres 1
FFAR1 (Homo sapiens)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
cytokine 72 99.04 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 109 98.92 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 121 98.84 Very High Very High Very High
antagonist 11 98.56 Very High Very High Very High
Glutamate 3 98.34 Very High Very High Very High
Central nervous system 5 96.72 Very High Very High Very High
Clonidine 3 96.08 Very High Very High Very High
qutenza 25 94.24 High High
adenocard 4 92.88 High High
Somatostatin 1 92.64 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Hyperinsulinism 46 99.96 Very High Very High Very High
Cerebral Hypoxia 3 99.78 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 404 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 356 99.68 Very High Very High Very High
Metabolic Syndrome 231 99.52 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 252 99.40 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperglycemia 94 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Acute Coronary Syndrome 24 99.12 Very High Very High Very High
Decapitation 2 99.08 Very High Very High Very High
Cv Unclassified Under Development 102 98.92 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Based upon the suggestion that this may be due to FFAs released from di- and triglycerides in the quantitation of FFAs, we have now analyzed and improved our procedures for TLC separation of FFA and reassessed the accumulation of FFA in whole brain during decapitation ischemia in unanesthetized and pentobarbital-anesthetized rats.
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of FFA in brain associated with ischemia and decapitation
1) Confidence 0.37 Published 1983 Journal J. Neurochem. Section Abstract Doc Link 6827283 Disease Relevance 0.60 Pain Relevance 0.37
The data are consistent with the view that brain anoxia initially increases FFA by receptor-mediated polyphosphoinositide breakdown and that the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor is one of the receptors involved.
Positive_regulation (increases) of FFA in brain associated with cerebral hypoxia
2) Confidence 0.35 Published 1991 Journal Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1839655 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.27
The glutamate antagonist MK-801 inhibited the fight and flight reaction, but did not affect the FFA accumulation.
Neg (not) Positive_regulation (accumulation) of FFA associated with glutamate and antagonist
3) Confidence 0.23 Published 1991 Journal Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1839655 Disease Relevance 0.32 Pain Relevance 0.28
FFA is apparently accumulated at the highest concentration in the cerebral hemispheres.
Positive_regulation (accumulated) of FFA in cerebral hemispheres
4) Confidence 0.23 Published 1991 Journal Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. Section Abstract Doc Link 1839655 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0.13
Despite the higher insulin concentration in the IR group, lipolysis inhibition was not as complete, with a persisting elevation of the FFA concentration compared to the IS group.
Positive_regulation (elevation) of FFA associated with insulin resistance
5) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC2903514 Disease Relevance 0.82 Pain Relevance 0
The FFA and glucose concentrations were also elevated in the IR group, but not significantly so, due in part to the sub-study being relatively underpowered to assess these.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA associated with insulin resistance
6) Confidence 0.10 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC2903514 Disease Relevance 1.12 Pain Relevance 0
The increase of FFA was followed by a rise of plasma triglycerides (TG) and an increase of very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), beginning 1-2 h later.
Positive_regulation (increase) of FFA in plasma
7) Confidence 0.08 Published 1983 Journal Adv Shock Res Section Abstract Doc Link 6410701 Disease Relevance 0.16 Pain Relevance 0.09
Nifedipine increased free fatty acid (FFA) extraction during pacing (from 1.5 +/- 12.9% to 17.4 +/- 13.1%, P less than 0.02) and uptake (from 1.8 +/- 8.5 to 11.1 +/- 10.6 mu mol min-1, P less than 0.05).
Positive_regulation (increased) of FFA
8) Confidence 0.08 Published 1985 Journal Eur. Heart J. Section Abstract Doc Link 4006961 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0.07
The normal myocardial response to ischemia is to increase glucose uptake, glycogenolysis and glycolysis[31], as well as increase FFA oxidation[32].
Positive_regulation (increase) of FFA associated with ischemia
9) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC2903514 Disease Relevance 0.96 Pain Relevance 0.12
These include reduced glucose uptake[33-35] and oxidation[36], increased FFA uptake and oxidation[37,38] as well as decrease in calcium transport within the sarcolemma and alterations in myofibrillary regulatory contractile proteins[39].
Positive_regulation (increased) of FFA
10) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Cardiovasc Diabetol Section Body Doc Link PMC2903514 Disease Relevance 0.87 Pain Relevance 0.19
Therefore, the observed upregulation of PDHa activity by exercise despite elevated plasma FFA in the present study in accordance with previous findings (26,34,35) supports that a beneficial effect of physical activity may include that FFAs do not prevent exercise-induced PDH activation.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in plasma
11) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that both low muscle glycogen and elevated FFA modify exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle independent of each other, potentially through regulation of PDK4 expression.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in skeletal muscle
12) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, although there was no effect of elevated FFA on PDHa activity at rest in the present study, maybe due to the overnight high-fat diet in both trials, elevated FFA levels have been shown to induce insulin resistance (31,32), and individuals with enhanced circulating FFA levels like type 2 diabetic subjects may experience FFA-mediated insulin resistance at rest (33), potentially in part because of FFA-induced downregulation of PDH (1).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in fat associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance
13) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.29 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, the impact on PDH regulation associated with low muscle glycogen and elevated plasma FFA was not additive, which may suggest that a similar underlying mechanism could be involved in exerting this effect on PDHa activity.
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in plasma
14) Confidence 0.07 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.09 Pain Relevance 0
In this context, a larger activation of FFA and EBA in women than men might indicate greater interest in or attention to this class of biologically relevant signals (human faces and bodies) in those individuals who are genetically determined to be the primary offspring caregivers.
Positive_regulation (activation) of FFA in faces
15) Confidence 0.06 Published 2008 Journal BMC Neurosci Section Body Doc Link PMC2453130 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, although there was no effect of elevated FFA on PDHa activity at rest in the present study, maybe due to the overnight high-fat diet in both trials, elevated FFA levels have been shown to induce insulin resistance (31,32), and individuals with enhanced circulating FFA levels like type 2 diabetic subjects may experience FFA-mediated insulin resistance at rest (33), potentially in part because of FFA-induced downregulation of PDH (1).
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of FFA in fat associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance
16) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
The downregulation of PDK4 protein content when plasma FFA was reduced by a carbohydrate-rich breakfast in the present study supports previous studies showing that an elevated FFA level is associated with increased PDK4 expression (1,36).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in plasma
17) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Such an effect of FFA is in accordance with previous studies, indicating that FFA downregulates PDHa activity or increases PDH phosphorylation in rat (1) and human (12) skeletal muscle at rest.
Positive_regulation (effect) of FFA in skeletal muscle
18) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.24 Pain Relevance 0
The present finding that exercise increased the PDHa activity at least threefold independent of differences in muscle glycogen concentration, and despite enhanced plasma FFA levels, demonstrates that mechanisms other than muscle glycogen and plasma FFA dominate exercise-induced PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle.
Positive_regulation (enhanced) of FFA in skeletal muscle
19) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
Thus, although there was no effect of elevated FFA on PDHa activity at rest in the present study, maybe due to the overnight high-fat diet in both trials, elevated FFA levels have been shown to induce insulin resistance (31,32), and individuals with enhanced circulating FFA levels like type 2 diabetic subjects may experience FFA-mediated insulin resistance at rest (33), potentially in part because of FFA-induced downregulation of PDH (1).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of FFA in fat associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance
20) Confidence 0.05 Published 2010 Journal Diabetes Section Body Doc Link PMC2797931 Disease Relevance 0.27 Pain Relevance 0

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