INT16720

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Context Info
Confidence 0.59
First Reported 1990
Last Reported 2010
Negated 2
Speculated 2
Reported most in Body
Documents 35
Total Number 40
Disease Relevance 14.00
Pain Relevance 6.67

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

cytosol (Xdh) oxidoreductase activity (Xdh) extracellular region (Xdh)
peroxisome (Xdh) cytoplasm (Xdh)
Anatomy Link Frequency
muscle 6
liver 5
skeletal muscle 2
plasma 1
heart 1
Xdh (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
dexamethasone 28 100.00 Very High Very High Very High
ischemia 35 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatism 2 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Paracetamol 28 98.96 Very High Very High Very High
Inflammation 107 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
Analgesic 3 98.44 Very High Very High Very High
cINOD 17 89.60 High High
antagonist 4 89.16 High High
Serotonin 1 88.72 High High
anesthesia 44 87.00 High High
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Cv Unclassified Under Development 32 99.72 Very High Very High Very High
Rheumatic Diseases 3 99.54 Very High Very High Very High
Contusions 2 99.24 Very High Very High Very High
INFLAMMATION 139 98.82 Very High Very High Very High
Injury 71 98.80 Very High Very High Very High
Hypoxia 25 98.62 Very High Very High Very High
Hepatotoxicity 6 98.04 Very High Very High Very High
Urological Neuroanatomy 4 97.66 Very High Very High Very High
Disorder Of Lipid Metabolism 32 97.32 Very High Very High Very High
Stress 92 97.08 Very High Very High Very High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
Lower doses of allopurinol, which are equally effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase, were not protective and had no effect on nitrotyrosine staining and acetaminophen protein adduct formation.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of xanthine oxidase associated with paracetamol
1) Confidence 0.59 Published 2001 Journal Toxicol. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 11452133 Disease Relevance 0.63 Pain Relevance 0.89
Pharmacologically safe antioxidants like allopurinol, which simultaneously modify the oxidative burst of phagocytes, inhibit xanthine oxidase, and display immunosuppressive effects may well be suited to control the consequences of chronic phagocytic hyperreactivity in rheumatic patients.
Negative_regulation (inhibit) of xanthine oxidase in phagocytes
2) Confidence 0.57 Published 1994 Journal Inflammation Section Abstract Doc Link 7843803 Disease Relevance 0.34 Pain Relevance 0.32
Twenty-two extracts from five Lychnophora species and one Lychnophoriopsis species, traditionally used in Brazil as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and to treat bruise and rheumatism were examined for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), the enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid.
Spec (examined) Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase associated with inflammation, analgesic, rheumatism and contusions
3) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal J Ethnopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 16621372 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.20
Twenty-two extracts from five Lychnophora species and one Lychnophoriopsis species, traditionally used in Brazil as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and to treat bruise and rheumatism were examined for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO), the enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid.
Spec (examined) Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XO associated with inflammation, analgesic, rheumatism and contusions
4) Confidence 0.52 Published 2006 Journal J Ethnopharmacol Section Abstract Doc Link 16621372 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0.20
However since XOR itself can also act as a source of NO in the heart during hypoxia, when NOS enzymes are inhibited [35],[40], it is also possible that inhibition of XOR actually results in inhibition of protective NO production.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XOR in heart associated with hypoxia
5) Confidence 0.47 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.36 Pain Relevance 0.03
Acetaminophen also promoted the conversion of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase to the oxidase form, and pretreatment of mice with allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, significantly decreased acetaminophen-mediated hepatotoxicity.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase associated with paracetamol and hepatotoxicity
6) Confidence 0.42 Published 1990 Journal J. Biol. Chem. Section Abstract Doc Link 2303440 Disease Relevance 0.10 Pain Relevance 0.57
However, inhibition of xanthine oxidase with allopurinol or endothelial (e)NOS with L-NAME did not influence IL-1?
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of xanthine oxidase
7) Confidence 0.42 Published 2008 Journal The Journal of Experimental Medicine Section Body Doc Link PMC2605224 Disease Relevance 0.21 Pain Relevance 0.07
Increased XOR activity in the absence of NO attenuation is associated with the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction [34],[39],[40] and inhibition of XOR using allopurinal has previously been shown beneficial for maintaining normal cardiac and vascular hemodynamics [39].
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XOR
8) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.23 Pain Relevance 0
We tested allopurinol therapy using a regimen shown effective in inhibiting XOR.
Negative_regulation (inhibiting) of XOR
9) Confidence 0.41 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.38 Pain Relevance 0.04
High, protective as well as low, nonprotective doses of allopurinol almost completely inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activity, but only high doses prevented the increase of the mitochondrial GSSG content.
Negative_regulation (inhibited) of xanthine oxidase
10) Confidence 0.39 Published 1990 Journal J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. Section Abstract Doc Link 2262912 Disease Relevance 0.41 Pain Relevance 0.55
We found, however, that inhibition of XOR had a detrimental effect on survival of LT-treated WT mice.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XOR
11) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Interestingly, XOR inhibition with allopurinol was also unable to reverse the increased susceptibility of nNOS?
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XOR
12) Confidence 0.35 Published 2009 Journal PLoS Pathogens Section Body Doc Link PMC2680977 Disease Relevance 0.07 Pain Relevance 0
The data in Table 1 show that prevention of superoxide generation by inhibition of XO activity depressed skeletal muscle force production in EDL and soleus muscles.
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XO in muscles
13) Confidence 0.28 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.06 Pain Relevance 0
Tenoxicam-treated patients had significant decrease in nitrite levels (p = 0.036) and XO activity (p = 0.01), but their SOD, GSH-Px enzyme activities, and MDA levels were unchanged from baseline.
Negative_regulation (decrease) of XO
14) Confidence 0.25 Published 2005 Journal Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. Section Abstract Doc Link 15943176 Disease Relevance 0.59 Pain Relevance 0.50
In the present experiments, the muscles were incubated with 0.67 mM oxypurinol, which was observed previously to inhibit XO activity in rats (39).
Negative_regulation (inhibit) of XO in muscles
15) Confidence 0.25 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has been in clinical use for over 40 years in the treatment of chronic gout.
Negative_regulation (inhibitor) of xanthine oxidase associated with crystal associated disease
16) Confidence 0.22 Published 2009 Journal Vascular Health and Risk Management Section Abstract Doc Link PMC2672460 Disease Relevance 0.53 Pain Relevance 0
Allopurinol-induced inhibition of XO was also found to reduce markers of muscle damage associated with exhaustive exercise in rats (56) and humans (16), and XO-derived ROS were shown to be important in activating signaling pathways involved in muscle adaptations to exercise (14, 25).
Negative_regulation (inhibition) of XO in muscle
17) Confidence 0.21 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0
There is no consensus regarding the concentration of oxypurinol necessary to inhibit XO in skeletal muscle, but our protocol differs from that used by other authors.
Negative_regulation (inhibit) of XO in skeletal muscle
18) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.08 Pain Relevance 0
In addition to the ability to inhibit XO, allopurinol and oxypurinol have weak hydroxyl radical scavenging properties at higher concentrations than those used here (36).
Negative_regulation (inhibit) of XO
19) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.05 Pain Relevance 0
It appeared feasible that the effect of oxypurinol to reduce muscle force generation may have been responsible for the reduced superoxide release, rather than any direct effect of oxypurinol on XO activity reducing superoxide release.
Negative_regulation (reducing) of XO in muscle
20) Confidence 0.18 Published 2010 Journal American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Section Body Doc Link PMC2806206 Disease Relevance 0.20 Pain Relevance 0.04

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