INT167833

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Context Info
Confidence 0.50
First Reported 2010
Last Reported 2010
Negated 0
Speculated 0
Reported most in Body
Documents 4
Total Number 13
Disease Relevance 6.52
Pain Relevance 0.82

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

extracellular space (Ins2) extracellular region (Ins2) nucleus (Ins2)
carbohydrate metabolic process (Ins2) cytoplasm (Ins2)
Anatomy Link Frequency
beta cell 5
Blood 1
Ins2 (Mus musculus)
Pain Link Frequency Relevance Heat
tolerance 130 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
diabetic neuropathy 106 86.40 High High
Sciatic nerve 42 41.12 Quite Low
beta blocker 10 14.76 Low Low
alcohol 50 9.36 Low Low
sodium channel 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Nicotine 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Angina 10 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
member 8 6 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Neuropathic pain 6 5.00 Very Low Very Low Very Low
Disease Link Frequency Relevance Heat
Impaired Glucose Tolerance 130 99.80 Very High Very High Very High
Diabetes Mellitus 299 99.66 Very High Very High Very High
Insulin Resistance 110 98.36 Very High Very High Very High
Nicotine Addiction 80 97.36 Very High Very High Very High
Hyperglycemia 40 95.44 Very High Very High Very High
Aging 50 94.44 High High
Apoptosis 2 89.28 High High
Peripheral Neuropathy 106 86.40 High High
Neuropathic Pain 14 83.72 Quite High
Ocular Toxicity (including Many Sub-types) 2 79.40 Quite High

Sentences Mentioned In

Key: Protein Mutation Event Anatomy Negation Speculation Pain term Disease term
A recent report suggested that the intracellular accumulation of the misfolded Proinsulin 2 leads to progressive disruption of the insulin secretory pathway organelle architecture and thereby resulting in pancreatic ?
Positive_regulation (accumulation) of Proinsulin
1) Confidence 0.50 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2877074 Disease Relevance 0.79 Pain Relevance 0.17
Notably, a proportion of our subjects probably had unidentified diabetes or IGT, and the increase in proinsulin/insulin with age observed in this study could conceivably just reflect the increase in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance.
Positive_regulation (increase) of proinsulin associated with diabetes mellitus, tolerance and impaired glucose tolerance
2) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 1.21 Pain Relevance 0.20
Proinsulin concentrations are increased relative to insulin in both IGT [20] and type 2 diabetes [21].
Positive_regulation (increased) of Proinsulin associated with diabetes mellitus and tolerance
3) Confidence 0.49 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.73 Pain Relevance 0.14
Blood glucose level started to increase in Ins2Akita/+ between three to four weeks of age (Fig. 1B) and reached a plateau approximately five weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia.
Positive_regulation (increase) of Ins2Akita in Blood associated with hyperglycemia
4) Confidence 0.44 Published 2010 Journal PLoS ONE Section Body Doc Link PMC2877074 Disease Relevance 1.19 Pain Relevance 0.22
Elevated log10(proinsulin), but not log10(proinsulin/insulin) or log10(insulin), was associated with increased serum creatinine.
Positive_regulation (Elevated) of proinsulin
5) Confidence 0.36 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.26 Pain Relevance 0
However, proinsulin levels and proinsulin-to-insulin ratios increased across age groups in both men and women.
Positive_regulation (increased) of proinsulin
6) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.15 Pain Relevance 0
Our hypothesis was that in a general population, signs of deterioration of beta cell function with advancing age is indicated not only by a decrease in random insulin levels, but also by a corresponding increase in proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin.


Positive_regulation (increase) of proinsulin in beta cell
7) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin.


Positive_regulation (increase) of proinsulin in beta cell
8) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Abstract Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
A decrease in insulin in both genders, together with a rise in proinsulin and in the proinsulin-to-insulin ratios with advancing age, emerged as significant after adjustment for the concurrent glucose levels, the time since the last meal, and covariates related to insulin sensitivity, which suggests that beta cell function deteriorates with age.
Positive_regulation (rise) of proinsulin in beta cell
9) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.14 Pain Relevance 0
Our hypothesis was that in a general population, signs of deterioration of beta cell function with advancing age is indicated not only by a decrease in random insulin levels, but also by a corresponding increase in proinsulin and proinsulin/insulin.


Positive_regulation (increase) of proinsulin in beta cell
10) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.28 Pain Relevance 0
Although proinsulin levels increase together with insulin concentrations in insulin resistance [8], a raised ratio of proinsulin to insulin, due to a disproportionate release of proinsulin from beta cells, is considered an early marker of islet dysfunction [4].
Positive_regulation (increase) of proinsulin in beta cells associated with insulin resistance
11) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.88 Pain Relevance 0.10
Increased serum triglycerides were strongly related with elevated log10(insulin) and log10(proinsulin).
Positive_regulation (elevated) of proinsulin
12) Confidence 0.33 Published 2010 Journal BMC Endocr Disord Section Body Doc Link PMC3020169 Disease Relevance 0.30 Pain Relevance 0
They also display reduced first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reduced insulin processing enzyme transcripts and increased proinsulin levels.
Positive_regulation (increased) of proinsulin
13) Confidence 0.27 Published 2010 Journal Diabetologia Section Body Doc Link 20424817 Disease Relevance 0 Pain Relevance 0

General Comments

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